Anti Form
"The significance of the work is in its effort not in its intentions. And that effort is a state of mind, an activity, an interaction with the world." - Richard Serra


Richard Serra, Hand Catching Lead, 1968.











Art and Culture
Art and Culture
John Latham, Text from Art & Culture, 1966.
John Latham, Art & Culture, 1966.











Carl Andre, Drawing for the Perfect Painting, 1967.











Sol Lewitt: A Wall Drawing Retrospective at Mass MoCA











MOCA wall drawing MOCA wall drawing











Sol Lewitt, Wall Drawing #41, 1970.











Light to Dark Scribbles
Dark to Light Scribbles
Sol LeWitt, Wall Drawing #1166 Light to dark (scribbles) and #1167 Dark to Light (scribbles), July 2005.











"LeWitt challenged some very fundamental beliefs about art, including the authority of the artist in the production of a work. His emphasis is most often on process and materials (or the lack thereof in the case of the latter) rather than on imbuing a work with a specific message or narrative. Art, for LeWitt, could exist for its own sake. Meaning was not a requirement."
"A conceptual piece, this work was produced shortly following the publication of LeWitt's 1968 manifesto describing the new Conceptual art movement. In the manifesto, he declares, 'The execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art,' '...LeWitt disengages himself from the work and takes a strong 'death of the author'" stance. - The Art Story
Sol Lewitt, Cube Containing Object of Significance But Very Little Value, 1968











Plywood Show

Robert Morris, Plywood Show, 1964 at the Green Gallery, NY.











Robert Morris, Slab, 1973 reconstruction of work shown in 1962.











The work "nearly appears not to be art." - Donald Judd
anarchy = a state of disorder due to absence or nonrecognition of authority
The artist's hand
The idea of the original
Notions of creation and preservation
Robert Morris, Untitled, 1964.











"Robert Morris's work is fundamentally theatrical… his theater is one of negation: negation of the avant-gardist concept of originality, negation of logic and reason, negation of the desire to assign uniform cultural meanings to diverse phenomena; negation of a worldview that distrusts the unfamiliar and the unconventional."
- Maurice Berger
Robert Morris, Untitled (Pink Felt), 1964. Felt pieces of various sizes, dimensions variable.











Robert Morris publishes Anti Form, 1968
  • Reassess assumptions underlying Minimalist art and concludes that "the construction of such objects had relied on subjective decisions and therefore resulted in icons—making them essentially no different than traditional sculpture." - Jennifer Blessing
  • Argues that sculpted form should be dictated by process, not preconceived
  • Extends Lucy Lippard's earlier recognition of a growing tendency toward "the dematerialization of the art object"



Robert Morris, Untitled, 1965/1971.











"Morris’s scattered felt strips obliquely allude to the human body through their response to gravity and epidermal quality. The ragged irregular contours of the jumbled heap refuse to conform to the strict unitary profile that is characteristic of Minimalist sculpture. This, along with its growing referentiality, led Morris’s work of the late-1960s and early 1970s to be referred to by such terms as Anti-Form, Process art, or Post-Minimalism. - Jennifer Blessing
Robert Morris, Untitled, 1970. 72 x 144 x 18 inches.











Artists have grown weary

Fiber Pile

  • Tired of consumption of Pop
  • Responding with conceptual works
  • Tired of capital value of art
  • Responding with works that couldn't be bought or owned
  • Tired of being told what to do by art critics
  • Responding by writing their own art theory
Robert Morris, Untitled, 1968.











Steel Magnesium Plain

Carl Andre, Steel Magnesium Plain, 1969. 6 X 6 ft.











Carl Andre installing work

Carl Andre installing Steel Magnesium Plain, 1969.











walking on Andre











Carl Andre, Field Stone Field (Hartford Connecticut), 1977.











Lynda Benglis, Corner Piece, 1969.











Lynda Benglis, pouring paint in 1969
Lynda Benglis, Contraband, 1969.