Process Art
"The significance of the work is in its effort not in its intentions. And that effort is a state of mind, an activity, an interaction with the world." - Richard Serra


Richard Serra, Hand Catching Lead, 1968.










Serra's verb list

"To roll, to fold, to bend, to shorten, to shave, to tear, to chip, to split, to cut, to splash..."


"process art"
Richard Serra, Verb List, 1967.











Richard Serra, To Lift, 1967. Vulcanized rubber, 36" x 6' 8" x 60".












Serra Throwing Lead

Zeus or Poseidon, Bronze, 460 – 450 BCE.

Richard Serra throwing lead at Leo Castelli warehouse, 1969.












Richard Serra, Splashing, 1968.











Richard Serra, Gutter Corner Splash/Night Shift, 1969/1995.











Corner Prop
Richard Serra, Corner Prop, 1969.











Richard Serra, One Ton Prop (House of Cards), 1969.
Richard Serra, Trip Hammer, 1988.











Richard Serra, Balanced, 1970. Hot-rolled steel 246.4 x 157.5 x 2.5 cm 97 x 62 x 1".











Richard Serra, Delineator, 1974 -75. Two Hot-Rolled Steel Plates, each 1" x 10' x 26'


Installation of Delineator at MoMA











Eva Hesse, Hang Up, 1965 -1966.





















Eva Hesse, Untitled (Rope Piece), 1966.











Autumn Rhythm

Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (Number 30), 1950.











Eva Hesse, Ringaround ARosie, 1965.

Eva Hesse, Accession III, 1967.











“Art and work and art and life are very connected and my whole life has been absurd. There isn’t a thing in my life that has happened that hasn’t been extreme- personal health, family, economic situations…absurdity is the key word…It has to do with contradictions and oppositions. In the forms I use in my work the contradictions are certainly there.  I was always aware that I should take order versus chaos, stringy versus mass, huge versus small, and I would try to find the most absurd opposites or extreme opposities.” – Eva Hesse

Eva Hesse, Repetition Nineteen III, 1968.











Eva Hesse, Contingent, 1969.























Lynda Benglis, Corner Piece, 1969.












Lynda Benglis, pouring pai69
Lynda Benglis, Contraband, 1969.











Barry Le Va, On Edge, Shatter, Scatter, 1968.











Arte Povera = Arte povera means literally ‘poor art’ but the word poor here refers to the movement’s signature exploration of a wide range of materials beyond the traditional ones of oil paint on canvas, bronze, or carved marble. Materials used by the artists included soil, rags and twigs. In using such throwaway materials they aimed to challenge and disrupt the values of the commercialised contemporary gallery system. (Tate Museum)


Michelangelo Pistoletto, Venus of the Rags, 1967/1974.











Jannis Kournellis, Untitled (12 horses), 1969.


Art in Flux
Self-Portrait as Fountain
"Remember, each one of us has the power to change the world. Just start thinking peace, and the message will spread quicker than you think." -  Yoko Ono


Bruce Nauman, Self Portrait as a Fountain, 1966 - 1967.








"The whole thing is a therapeutic process. For me it was a time when I realized the part the artist can play in indicating the traumas of a time and initiating a healing process." - Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys











"The memories I have of that time are images that penetrated my consciousness. The last thing I remember was that it was too late to jump, too late for the parachutes to open. That must have been a couple of seconds before hitting the ground. Luckily I was not strapped in – I always preferred free movement to safety belts… My friend was strapped in and he was atomized on impact – there was almost nothing to be found of him afterwards. But I must have shot through the windscreen as it flew back at the same speed as the plane hit the ground and that saved me, though I had bad skull and jaw injuries. Then the tail flipped over and I was completely buried in the snow. That's how the Tartars found me days later. I remember voices saying ‘Voda’ (Water), then the felt of their tents, and the dense pungent smell of cheese, fat and milk. They covered my body in fat to help it regenerate warmth, and wrapped it in felt as an insulator to keep warmth in." Beuys in Caroline Tisdall's Joseph Beuys











Joseph Beuys, The Chief- Fluxus Chant, December 1, 1964.


"Such an action, and indeed every action, changes me radically. In a way it's a death, a real action and not an interpretation." - Beuys











Joseph Beuys, How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, 1965.






















Singing Sculpture
Performance Art = art where the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time, constitute the work.  Performance work is often documented via film and photography.
Underneath the Arches
Gilbert & George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970.











Joseph Beuys, Coyote, "I Like America and America Likes Me," 1974.











I Like America and America Likes Me

I Like America and America Likes Me

Joseph Beuys. Coyote, "I Like America and America Likes Me," 1974.











Fluxus = (from Latin "to flow") is an experimental art movement noted for the blending of different artistic disciplines
George Maciunas, Fluxus Manifesto, 1962 or 1963.












George Maciunas, Piano Piece, 1962.











Painting to Hammer a Nail In

Yoko Ono, Painting to Hammer a Nail In, 1961.











Ceiling Painting

Yoko Ono, Ceiling Painting, 1966.












Ceiling Painting











*Cut Piece

First version for single performer:

Performer sits on stage with a pair of scissors in front of him. It is announced that members of the audience may come on stage one at a time to cut a small piece of the performer's clothing to take with them.

Performer remains motionless throughout the piece. Piece ends at the performer's option.

Second version for audience: It is announced that members of the audience may cut each others clothing.

* The audience may cut as long as they wish

Cut Piece





















Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, Performed on September 15, 2003 at Theatre Le Ranelagh, Paris, France.