Leaping Into Voids
"I can't understand why people are frightened of new ideas. I'm frightened of the old ones." - John Cage

Rough Draft Shares now due
Reminder! Exam 2 Due on Wednesday!
Allan Kaprow, Notes on 18 Happenings in 6 Parts, c. late 1950s.











Question: How do you write a research paper?











Allan Kaprow, 18 Happening in 6 Parts, 1959.










The Legacy of Jackson Pollock by Allan Kaprow, 1958


  • Argued that Pollock destroyed painting
    and plunged art into the realm of reality
  • Pollock's mural-like scale transformed the viewer into participant
  • Kaprow continued to investigate the participatory nature of art throughout career
Kaprow coined the term "happening" = a performance, event or situation meant to be considered art
  • Happenings could take place anywhere, were often multi-disciplinary, often lacked a narrative and frequently sought to involve the audience in some way
Allan Kaprow, Household (Women licking jam off car), 1964.










4' 33"

John Cage, 4'33", 1952.











John Cage 1952 performance
William Marx 2010 performance












Allan Kaprow, Fluids Happening, Performed in 2008 by CSULA Students.












Mierle Ukeles, Washing, 1973. Reperformed by Annee Grotte Viken in 2012.










1954 Jiro Yoshihara founded
the Gutai Art Association in Japan

Challenging Mud

Gutai = concrete

In the Gutai Manifesto, Jirō Yoshihara defined Gutai as truth to the material of which art is made, and lifting that material to spiritual heights. He singled out Jackson Pollock and the French painter Georges Mathieu as artists who "grapple with the material in a way which is completely appropriate to it," and encouraged group members to emulate this approach.
Kazuo Shiraga, Challenging Mud, 1955. Photo from the first Gutai exhibition.











Breaking Through

Saburo Murakami, Breaking Through Many Paper Screens, 1956, Photo from the second Gutai exhibition.











Saburo Murakami, Iriguchi (Exit?), 1955 / 2012.






















Hurling Colors
Shozo Shimamoto performs Hurling Colors at the second Gutai Exhibition, 1956.











Zen for Head
Nam June Paik, Zen for Head, 1962.










Charlotte Moorman performs Nam June Paik's TV Bra for Living Sculpture, 1969.











Nouveaux Realistes (New Realism)

Bourgeois Refuse

French equivalent to Neo Dada and Pop Art
Sought a "passionate adventure of the real"
Wanted to bring art and life closer together
Arman, Large Bourgeois Refuse, 1960.











Shooting Picture

De Saint Phalle making a shooting painting


Niki de Saint Phalle, Shooting Picture, 1961.
Niki de Saint Phalle creating a shooting picture











Niki de Saint Phalle, Jean Tinguely and Per Olof Utvedt, Hon, 1966.
Niki de Saint Phalle, Black Nana, 1968 - 1969.











Rob Zombie's appropriation of de Saint Phalle's, Hon, 2013











Pierro Manzoni, Artist's Breath, 1960.
Pierro Manzoni, Artist's Breath, 1960.