Emigres & Universal Voices
Thesis Proposal now due on Blackboard!












Chicago Manual of Style Footnote citations (no Bibliography)
Single Author Book
Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.
1. Eleanor Monro, Originals: American Women Artists (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1979), 64.
2. David Joselit, "American Art Since 1945" (London: Thams & Hudson, 2003), 72.
3. Whitney Chadwick, Women, Art, and Society (London: Thames & Hudson, 2012), 64.
4. Johnathan Weinberg, Ambition and love in Modern American art (New Haven, CN: Yale Publications in the history of Art, 2001) 73.
5. Alejandro Anreus, Robin Adéle Greely, and Leonard Folgarait, Mexican Muralism: A Critical History (Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2012), 64.
Article in a Periodical or Journal
Firstname Lastname, “Title of Article,” Name of Journal in italics volume, number (publication date): page number.
6. Geoffery Winthrop-Young, "Power Trip", Artforum, Summer 2017: 295-296.
Chapter in a Book
Firstname Lastname, “Title of Chapter,” in Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.
7. Mara R. Witzling, ed., "Berthe Morisot 1841-1895," in Voicing Our Visions, (Place of Publication: Publisher, 1991: 73.











A Bar at the Folies-Bergere

The term "modernism"
develops out of the avant-garde

Modernism = philosophy that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their lives, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation.  Rooted in urban culture, where leisure activities as welll as daily necessities are available commercially, modernity refers to the condition of post-industrial, capitalist society. Associated with ideas of progress and novelty, modernism reflects the dominant ethos of a society in which consumption plays a central role in one's daily activities. Because of its capitalist base, modernity emphasizes change and continual improvement often at the expense of the worker.

Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.











Luncheon on the Grass

Edouard Manet, Luncheon on the Grass (Le Dejeuner Sur L'Herbe), 1863.











Pastoral Concert

Titian and Giorgione, The Pastoral Concert, c. 1508.











Characteristics of Modern Art:

Les Demoiselles D'Avignon

  • Discarded “traditional” forms of art
    as old-fashioned and irrelevant
  • Embraced disruption
  • Believed in universals and the essential
  • Valued innovation (being the first)
  • Centered on individuals who "expressed" themselves
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907.











Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937.  11' X 23'.  Oil on canvas.











"Painting is not done to decorate apartments. It is an instrument of war for attack and defense against the enemy." - Pablo Picasso


Guernica after aerial bombardment











Simon Schaman's Power of Art: Picasso
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4










The Modern World Challenges Tradition (at lease in Europe)


At the turn of the 20th century, a number of traditional points of view
were replaced with radical new ways of thinking
  • Einstein publishes his Theory of Relativity in physics
  • Increasing industrialization changes the way people live, buy and work
  • Freud introduces his concepts of the subconcious mind
  • The Wright brothers invent a machinethat allows humans to fly
  • Ford's assembly line quickly and efficiently
    produces cutting edge machinery
And... the traditional center of the art world in
Paris was beginning to lose its hold
Man Ray, Cadeau (Gift), 1921.










Hugo Ball

Avant-garde = artists or works that are novel or experimental
  • relates to military term for soldiers who explore battlefield ahead of advancing army
  • suggests small group of intellectuals who push the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm
Hugo Ball performing Karawane
at the Cabaret Voltaire, 1916.











Mechanical Head

As artists began to challenge the status quo and redefine art for the modern era, a new vocabulary/ language was also needed to understand the things they were making and now calling "art"
Bird in Space
Raoul Hausmann, The Spirit of Our Time (Mechanical Head), 1919.
Constantin Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1928?










The 1913 Armory Show introduces radical European abstraction to America for the first time


Armory Show Main Hall

Armory Show Main Hall











Nude Descending a Staircase

Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, 1912.





















U.S. Postal Stamp Commemorating
Armory Show, 1998.











Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 (1964 replica).