Leaping Into Voids
"We are living in the mechanical age. Painted canvas and standing plaster figures no longer have any reason to exist. What is needed is a change in both essence and form. What is needed is the supercession of painting, sculpture, poetry, and music. It is necessary to have an art that is in greater harmony with the needs of the new spirit." - Lucio Fontana


Lucio Fontana, Conceito Espacial, 1968.












Allan Kaprow, Fluids Happening, Performed in 2008 by CSULA Students.












Mierle Ukeles, Washing, 1973. Reperformed by Annee Grotte Viken in 2012.











1954 Jiro Yoshihara founded
the Gutai Art Association in Japan

Challenging Mud

Gutai = concrete

In the Gutai Manifesto, Jirō Yoshihara defined Gutai as truth to the material of which art is made, and lifting that material to spiritual heights. He singled out Jackson Pollock and the French painter Georges Mathieu as artists who "grapple with the material in a way which is completely appropriate to it," and encouraged group members to emulate this approach.
Kazuo Shiraga, Challenging Mud, 1955. Photo from the first Gutai exhibition.











Breaking Through

Saburo Murakami, Breaking Through Many Paper Screens, 1956, Photo from the second Gutai exhibition.











Saburo Murakami, Iriguchi (Exit?), 1955 / 2012.






















Hurling Colors
Shozo Shimamoto performs Hurling Colors at the second Gutai Exhibition, 1956.











Zen for Head
Nam June Paik, Zen for Head, 1962.










Charlotte Moorman performs Nam June Paik's TV Bra for Living Sculpture, 1969.











Nouveaux Realistes (New Realism)

Bourgeois Refuse

French equivalent to Neo Dada and Pop Art
Sought a "passionate adventure of the real"
Wanted to bring art and life closer together
Arman, Large Bourgeois Refuse, 1960.



















Pierro Manzoni, Artist's Breath, 1960.
Pierro Manzoni, Artist's Breath, 1960.












Living Sculpture
Pedestal for the World
Piero Manzoni, Living Sculpture, 1961.
Piero Manzoni, Pedestal for the World, 1962.











Artist's Shit

Piero Manzoni, Artist's Shit, 1960.











Number 1


Jackson Pollock at work, 1950.
Piero Manzoni with Artist's Shit, 1961.












Ber­nard Ba­zi­le, Boite ou-ver-te de Piero Manzoni, 1989.