Throwing It Up
"I can't understand why people are frightened of new ideas. I'm frightened of the old ones." - John Cage

Research Paper Rough Drafts Due
Allan Kaprow, Notes on 18 Happenings in 6 Parts, c. late 1950s.











Shooting Picture

De Saint Phalle making a shooting painting


Niki de Saint Phalle, Shooting Picture, 1961.
Niki de Saint Phalle creating a shooting picture











Niki de Saint Phalle, Jean Tinguely and Per Olof Utvedt, Hon, 1966.
Niki de Saint Phalle, Black Nana, 1968 - 1969.











Rob Zombie's appropriation of de Saint Phalle's, Hon, 2013











Niki de Saint Phalle, The Empress in the Tarot Garden, 1998.











Installation art = art that uses sculptural materials and other media to modify a particular space. It is not necessarily confined to a gallery or museum space and often incorporates the viewer into the work.
Ed Kienholz, Roxy's, 1961.











Illegal Operation

Ed Kienholz, The Illegal Operation, 1962.











The State Hospital
Ed and Nancy Kienholz, The State Hospital, 1966.











The State Hospital

Ed Kienholz, The State Hospital tableau, 1966.











First retrospective of Kienholz's work at LACMA in 1966


Back Seat Dodge

Ed Kienholz, Back Seat Dodge '38, 1964.
































Ed Kienholz, Five Car Stud, 1969 - 1972.




















Allan Kaprow, 18 Happening in 6 Parts, 1959.










The Legacy of Jackson Pollock by Allan Kaprow, 1958


  • Argued that Pollock destroyed painting
    and plunged art into the realm of reality
  • Pollock's mural-like scale transformed the viewer into participant
  • Kaprow continued to investigate the participatory nature of art throughout career
Kaprow coined the term "happening" = a performance, event or situation meant to be considered art
  • Happenings could take place anywhere, were often multi-disciplinary, often lacked a narrative and frequently sought to involve the audience in some way
Allan Kaprow, Household (Women licking jam off car), 1964.










4' 33"

John Cage, 4'33", 1952.












John Cage 1952 performance
William Marx 2010 performance