Visual Pleasure
One Image Two Minutes pages now available on Scalar and due on May 21.
Quiz 3 will be posted to Canvas by Friday, May 14 and must be submitted by the end of the day, Friday, May 21.
All coursework is due before the beginning of our last class on Wednesday, May 12. No coursework (extra credit, reading posts, resubmissions, etc.) will be accepted after this deadline.
Please submit your course evaluation on Canvas!

Marry Ellen Mark, Andy Dunlap and Helen Alston, Charlottesville, Va, 2008.












pastiche = an artistic technique whereby a generally light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style is employed; although jocular it is usually respectful (as opposed to parody, which is not)
Untitled 21
Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #21, 1978.











Carravaggio, Young Sick Bacchus, 1593.
Cindy Sherman, Untitled #224, 1990.
Appropriation = the use of found or borrowed elements in the creation of a new artwork
Walter Benjamin's The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
  • In an age when images can be reproduced endlessly, there is no original
  • "Aura" is the feeling of awe created by unique object from the past
  • Capitalism destroys the aura because of proliferation, mass production and endless reproduction.
  • Once the aura has been lost, when art is no longer based on ritual, it begins to be based in politics











Torso of Neil

Weston poster

Edward Weston, Neil Nude, 1925.
Witkin Gallery, Six Nudes of Neil, 1925 by Edward Weston.  Poster announcing publicationof a limited edition portfolio printed by George A. Tice, 1977.











Sherrie Levine, After Edward Weston, 1981.











Torso of Neil
Untitled After Edward Weston
Polykleitos, Doryphoros, 450 - 440 BCE.
Edward Weston, Neil Nude, 1925.
Sherrie Levine, After Edward Weston, 1981.











Related to Fredric Jameson's concept of the simulacra and Jean Baudrillard's Simulacra and Simulation (1981)
simulacra = a copy of a copy which has been so dissipated in its relation to the original that it can no longer be said to be a copy.  The simulacrum therefore stands on its own as a copy without a model.
  • The photograph is a copy of another photograph;
  • The photograph is a copy of an "original";
  • The "original" was likely set up to remind the viewer of something prior; and
  • The "original" doubtlessly modeled itself on something prior.
Sherrie Levine, After Walker Evans #4, 1981.










“Confronts the contradiction between photography (an infinitely reproducible medium) and fine art (commonly considered a unique object).  Many art photographers artificially curtail the size of their editions to give their work the aura of a unique object.  This exclusivity is compromised when their work is then reproduced in books and magazines [and on the internet].  Levine rescues them from this process.  The images she photographs originate in the media; but in framing and presenting them as singular works of art, she returns them to the privileged arena of fine art where such mid-twentieth-century photographers as Edward Weston and Walker Evans intended them to be seen.”
– Linda Weintraub
Sherrie Levine, After Walker Evans #11, 1981.











Barbara Kruger, Untitled (We Don't Need Another Hero), 1987.











Barbara Kruger, Man's Best Friend, 1987.
Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Your body is a battleground), 1989.











"I work with pictures and words because they have the ability to determine who we are,
what we want to be, and what we become." - Barbara Kruger


Barbara Kruger, It's a small world..., 1990.
Barbara Kruger, It's a small world..., across from Port Authority building during NY Hilton labor strike, 2000











Richard Prince, Untitled Cowboys, 1980 - 1986.





















Spiritual America

Richard Prince, Spiritual America (after an original by Garry Gross), c. 1978
printed in Playboy Magazine in 1983.











Brooke Shields in Pretty Baby

Pretty Baby
Storeyville Portrait
Brooke Shields in
Pretty Baby
E.J. Bellocq,  Storeyville Portrait,  c. 1900 - 1917.











Richard Prince, Spiritual America IV, 2005.











“I never associated advertisements with having an author.” - Richard Prince

Shepard Fairey, Obama Hope poster, 2008.

Mannie Garcia, George Clooney and Candidate Obama at Democratic Fundraiser, 2006.