Pictorialism
 

Quiz 2 due on Canvas before midnight.
 
Clarence H. White, Drops of Rain, 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1888, George Eastman introduces the "Kodak #1 " Hand-held Camera
Sold for $25, more than $450 today
Included Eastman Kodak's newly patented transparent roll film
 
By 1898, an estimated 1.5 million roll-film cameras had been sold to amateurs

 
Kodak #1 Camera

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brownie Camera ad

1900 first Brownie camera released and is sold for $1
150,000 cameras sold the first year
Kodak Brownie Ad. 1900.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

circular snapshots

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artist Unknow, The Kodak Girl, c. 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At a time when people were beginning to feel the alienating effects of modern urban living, the hand-held camera gave the individual a means of expression and a voice

Jacques-Henri Lartigue, Bois De Boulogne, c. 1890.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

snapshot = to shoot instinctively without taking aim

 

Photo-Revolver de Poche c. 1882.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Snapshot introduced new ways of seeing:

Informal framing
Unbalanced compositions
Skewed angles
Strange perspectives
Banal subjects
Out-of-focus objects
Unknown Photographer, Two Young Girls, c. 1890.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacques-Henri Lartigue, My Hydro-glider with Propeller, 1904.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacques-Henri Lartigue, My Cousin Bichonnade, 1905.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Delaye Grand Prix

Jacques-Henri Lartigue, Delaye Grand Prix, 1912.

 

Lartigue's photo "...was taken with an ICA camera in 1912 on a 4x5 inch glass plate with an f4.5 lens, fast for those days." "The effect came about because Jacques Henri used a large camera which he panned to follow the car (but not quite fast enough) and he used a focal plane shutter of which the slit moved from top to bottom. In this way we see different moments in time projected on different parts of the film. In the image the slit of the focal plane shutter moved upward because of the bottom-up projection of the lens."
- Large Format Photography Forum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacques-Henri Lartigue, The ZYX 24 Takes Off, 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Naturalism
 
“As an aid to science, as a recorder, as a duplicator, photography has helped advance civilization.  [Yet] it has failed to occupy the place it may yet hold as a means for expressing original thought of a fine order.” – J. Wells Champney, American artist
 
Claude Monet, Sunset at Lavacourt, 1880.

P.H. Emerson, Gathering Water Lilies, c. 1880s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P.H. Emerson, Rowing Home the Schoof-Stuff, 1886.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Constable, The White Horse, 1819.
George Davison, The Onion Field, 1889.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heinrich Kuhn, Mary Warner and Hans Kuhn, c. 1908.
Heinrich Kuhn, On a Meadow in Birgitz (Hans and Mary Sitting), c. 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alfred Stieglitz, Winter on Fifth Avenue, 1892. (uncropped)
Alfred Stieglitz, Winter on Fifth Avenue, 1892. (cropped)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Terminal

Alfred Stieglitz, The Terminal, 1892. Photogravure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camera Notes featured:

Quality reproductions
Critical reviews
How to articles
Alfred Stieglitz, Hand of Man, 1902.  Photogravure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pictorialism = early 20th century photographic movement which promoted the idea that art photography should emulate painting and encouraged the use of soft focus, special filters and lens coatings, heavy manipulation in the darkroom and complex printing processes
 
Characteristics of Pictorialist style:
  • Valued final image over subject matter
  • Soft focus
  • Simple compositions
  • Cropping of negative
  • Elaborate printing processes
  • photogravure = The process of printing from an intaglio plate, etched according to a photographic image.
William Fraser, A Wet Night, Columbus Circle, c. 1897 - 1898.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1900 "The New School of American Photography" exhibition held in London and Paris

 

Ebony and Ivory

Fred Holland Day, Ebony and Ivory, 1897.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"We have here merely the excrescences of a diseased imagination, which has been fostered by the ravings of a few luncatics." - The Photographic News

 
Critics disliked Pictorialism because:
Lack of definition - often called the "fuzzy wuzzy school"
Asymmetrical compositions
Extreme contrasts
 
 
Fred Holland Day, Youth Sitting on a Stone, 1907.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1901 Stieglitz left Camera Notes
1902 founded the Photo Secession
  • Invitation only group that included Alfred Stieglitz, Eduard Steichen, Frank Eugene, Gertrude Kaesebier, Joseph Keiley, John Bullcok, Eva Watson-Schutze
  • Consciously exculded themselves from traditional photographic practices that Stieglitz felt were inferior and old-fashioned
  • Wanted to force the art world to recognize photography "as a distinctive medium of individual expression"
1903 established Camera Work
 
"As far as I'm concerned he took about five good pictures in his whole life, and that was only when he ventured out of himself. He had nothing to do with me or my pictures. Everything had to revolve around him. It was one of the silliest and most outrageous cults I've ever seen. I've never liked any persons or schools that closed other people out." - Berenice Abbott in Art News, January 1981

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frank Eugene, Ms. Ide., c. 1890 - 1903.
Frank Eugene, Miss Gene W., c. 1900s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heinrich Kuhn, On the Hillside, 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Miss N

Gertrude Kasebier, The Magic Crystal, c. 1904.
Gertrude Kasebier, Portrait of Miss N.,  c.1900.

 

An interesting account of the murder of Stanford White

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Brass Bowl

Edward Steichen, Self-Portrait, 1902.
Edward Steichen, The Brass Bowl, 1906.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of Steichen's work:
Subjective response to visual world
Photograph used as means of expression
Moody overtones
 
 
Edward Steichen, Brooklyn Bridge, 1903.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stieglitz

Clarence White, Morning Dew, 1908.
Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, 1907.