Still Life and Still Lives
 
Kerry James Marshall, Still Life with Wedding Portrait, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harriet Tubman

Squyer, Harriet Tubman, c. 1885

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Araminta Harriet Ross with first husband John Tubman, c. 1844

Harriet Tubman, 1911

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kerry James Marshall, Still Life with Wedding Portrait, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"In 1849 Harriet Tubman learned that she and her brothers Ben and Henry were to be sold. Financial difficulties of slave owners frequently precipitated sale of slaves and other property. The family had been broken before; three of Tubman’s older sisters, Mariah Ritty, Linah, and Soph, were sold to the Deep South and lost forever to the family and to history.  

Determining their own fate, Tubman and her brothers escaped, but turned back when her brothers, one of them a brand-new father, had second thoughts. A short time later, Tubman escaped alone and made her way through Maryland, Delaware, and across the line into Pennsylvania and freedom [more than 100 miles away]. Tubman’s biographer, Sarah Bradford, quoted Tubman recalling, 'When I found I had crossed that line, I looked at my hands to see if I was the same person. There was such a glory over everything; the sun came like gold through the trees, and over the fields, and I felt like I was in Heaven'” (National Parks Service).

Undergruound Railroad Routes



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underground Railroad Quilt

quilt block code

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Left to right: Harriet Tubman; Gertie Davis [Tubman’s adopted daughter]; Nelson Davis [Tubman’s husband]; Lee Cheney; “Pop” Alexander; Walter Green; Sarah Parker [“Blind Auntie” Parker] and Dora Stewart [granddaughter of Tubman’s brother, john Stewart], possibly at home for aging Black folks in St. Catharines, Ontario.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Atlantic Slave Trade

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NXC4Q_4JVg

 

The Atlantic Slve Trade in Two Minutes

https://slavevoyages.org/voyage/database#timelapse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate Currency, "Greenback"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

McPherson and Oliver (attributed),
The Scourged Back, 1863, carte-de-visite

Sojourner Truth, I Sell the Shadow to Support the Substance, 1864, carte-de-visite

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mathew Brady, Construction of Washington Monument, 1860.
Mathew Brady, Frederick Douglass, c. 1880.
Was the Washington Monument built by slaves?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Victorian Cabinet Card Collection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louis Agassiz

Ornithology collection at Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Delia

Delia

J.T. Zealy, "Delia, country born of African partents, daughter of Renty, Congo," 1850.  Daguerreotype.
J.T. Zealy, "Delia, country born of African partents, daughter of Renty, Congo," profile, 1850.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jack

Renty
J.T. Zealy, "Renty, Congo, B.F. Taylor, Esq. Columbia, S.C.," 1850.  Daguerreotype.
J.T. Zealy, "Renty, Congo, B.F. Taylor, Esq. Columbia, S.C.," profile, 1850.  Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harvard zoologist, Louis Agassiz intended these photographs to be read as scientific evidence for polygenesis, the idea that human races had separate origins and were thus inescapably and irrevocably different.

 

Jack

Renty
J.T. Zealy, "Jack (driver), Guinea. Plantation of B. F. Taylor, Esq. Columbia, S.C.," 1850.  Daguerreotype.
J.T. Zealy, "Jack (driver), Guinea. Plantation of B. F. Taylor, Esq. Columbia, S.C.," profile, 1850.  Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jack

Renty
J.T. Zealy, "Fassena (carpenter) Mandingo, plantation of Col. Wade Hampton, near Columbia, South Carolina," 1850.  Daguerreotype.
J.T. Zealy, "Fassena (carpenter) Mandingo, plantation of Col. Wade Hampton, near Columbia, South Carolina," profile, 1850.  Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jack
Renty
J.T. Zealy, "Jem, Gullah, belonging to F.W.Green, Columbia, S.C.," 1850. Daguerreotype.
J.T. Zealy, "Jem, Gullah, belonging to F.W.Green, Columbia, S.C.," profile, 1850. Daguerreotype.
J.T. Zealy, "Jem, Gullah, belonging to F.W.Green, Columbia, S.C.," back, 1850. Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jack
Renty
J.T. Zealy, "Alfred, Foulah, belonging to I. Lomas, Columbia, S.C.," profile, 1850.  Daguerreotype.
J.T. Zealy, "Alfred, Foulah, belonging to I. Lomas, Columbia, S.C.," back, 1850.  Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Delia

J.T. Zealy, "Drana. country born, daughter of Jack, Guinea. Plantation of B.F. Taylor Esq. Columbia S.C.," 1850.  Daguerreotype.
J.T. Zealy, "Drana. country born, daughter of Jack, Guinea. Plantation of B.F. Taylor Esq. Columbia S.C.," profile, 1850.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995 - 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Photographer and critic Allan Sekula contends that the photographic portrait is 'a double system of representation capable of functioning both honorifically and repressively.' Furthermore, he considers these tendencies to be opposing but related poles of portrait practices. Yet what the photographs of Williams and Weems reveal is that these double functions can be evident simultaneously. Their works do not erase the imprint of the repressive institutions that have used black bodies to corroborate theories of deviance and inferiority; instead, their photographs make plain the repression and compel viewers to reflect on this legacy and its currency in our present. However, their work also enables fresh and honorable ways of looking that allow us to see anew the images of black people found in mid-nineteenth-century popular culture and science. For instance, as Weems is a student of folklore and shares an affinity with anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston, her positioning of the photographs of enslaved Africans and African Americans within a context of black diasporic folk practices and beliefs opens the possibility of understanding these people who look so intently at the camera and cameraman as conjurers using their skills of concentration to gain control over their predicament" (Collins, Hottentot, 81).

Carrie Mae Weems, From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried, 1995-1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frank Davey, Fallen statue of Louis Agassiz, Stanford University, no. 32,1906

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"During the 60 years leading up to the Civil War, the daily amount of cotton picked per enslaved worker increased 2.3 percent a year. That means that in 1862, the average enslaved fieldworker picked not 25 percent or 50 percent as much but 400 percent as much cotton than his or her counterpart did in 1801" (Desmond, In order to understand the brutality of American capitalis, you have to start on the plantation).

 


Artist unknown, George Washington Overseeing his Slaves at Mount Vernon, 1853, lithograph.
Washington owned at least 300 enslaved people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




Isaac Jefferson (former slave of Thomas Jefferson), tinsmith, nail maker, and blacksmith, Daguerreotype, c. 1845.
An aerial view of Monticello shows Mulberry Row to the right of Thomas Jefferson's house, 1772.

Slavery at Monticello app

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue
=56&v=eJBmFlKa0F0&feature=emb_logo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Jefferson owned over 600 enslaved people over his life, including his wife's half sister, Sally Hemings (who was 25 years younger than Martha), whom may have also been used as a sex slave? Sally and Martha's father was the slave trader John Wayles. Sally and her siblings were given to Martha as part of an inheritance. Sally and her brother James accompanied Jefferson's youngest daughter to London and Paris. Already in Paris working as the U.S. envoy to France, where slavery had been made illegal in 1794, Thomas Jefferson and Sally may have entered into a concentual intimate relationship when she was 16 years old, and he was 46. Sally became pregnant, and returned to the U.S. with Jefferson in 1789. Hemings would have six children, and in 1997, a link to Jefferson connected with at least one of her boys was established through genetic testing.

 


 
Harriet Hemings Jefferson in 1926 & 1934

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abraham Lincoln

All of the first 18 U.S. Presidents owned enslaved people, except for John Adams (second President), and his son, John Quincy Adams (sixth President), and Abraham Lincoln (16th President)

Matthew Brady Studio, Abraham Lincoln, c. 1863. Albumen Cabinet Card.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During the Lincoln Douglass debates, after being accussed of "supporting negro equality, Lincoln responded, “I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races.” Lincoln did not support suffrage for Black men, and did not believe they should serve on juries, hold public office, or be allowed to marry whites. A capitalist, Lincoln did however believe that Black people had the right to improve their lives and seek happiness. 

Matthew Brady Studio, Abraham Lincoln, c. 1863. Albumen Cabinet Card.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andrew Johnson, who served as Lincoln’s vice president before becoming president in 1865, owned at least six enslaved people, whom he bragged he never sold. He lobbied for Lincoln to exclude his own state, Tennessee from the Emancipation Proclamation.

Dolly Johnson with Andrew Johnson's grandson
Sam Johnson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The last U.S. President to own enslaved people was Ulysses S. Grant. Before serving as a General in the Union Army, Grant had possessed an enslaved man named William Jones, whom he granted freedom in 1859.

Mathew Brady, General Ulysses S. Grant and General John A. Rawlins, c. 1863.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The Slave That Reads is the First to Run Away"
 

"American planters never forgot what happened in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) in 1791, when enslaved workers took up arms and revolted. In fact, many white enslavers overthrown during the Haitian Revolution relocated to the United States and started over.

Sir Joshua Reynolds, Study of a Black Man, 1808