VTLS Speaker, Artist, Rachel Mason
Wednesday, March 1
7 - 8 PM in AF 209 C

Notes on CMS Citations
Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg Germany on October 31, 1517.











The Protestant Reformation
Four Apostles
1517 Luther post the "95 Theses"
95 Reforms he demands the Catholic Church make
Especially critical of the sale of indulgences
  • to rid the Church of pagan practices and rituals
  • promote importance of individual faith
  • thought devotion to the saints was distracting
  • placed responsibility on the faithful to read and interpret Bible for themselves
Albrecht Dürer, Four Apostles, 1526.











Historical Context
Beginning of Protestant Reformation
Death of Raphael
Sack of Rome - end of High Renaissance
Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church and establishes Church of England
Copernicus publishes theory in which planets revolve around sun
First scientific study of human anatomy based on dissections published
1545 - 1563
Counter Reformation begins with Council of Trent
Giorgio Vasari publishes The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth I reigns in England
1564 - 1616
William Shakespeare
Netherlands declare independence from Spain











1520 to late 16th century
maniera = artificial
Michelangelo, Last Judgment, 1536 - 1541.











Michelangelo, detail of the Last Judgment, 1536 - 1541.












Renaissance vs. Mannerist Styles
Sought equilibrium
Sought instability
Jacopo da Pontormo, Entombment of Christ, 1525 - 1528.












Characteristics of Mannerism:
Extraordinary technical skill
Elegant composition
Irrational spatial effects
Figures with elongated proportions, exaggerated pose, and enigmatic gestures
Erotic imagery












Andrea Mantengna, Detail of the ceiling of the Camera degli Sposi, 1465 - 1474.
Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin, 1526 - 1530. Dome of the Cathedral of Parma, Italy











Madonna with the Long Neck
Titian, Pesaro Madonna, 1526.
Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, 1534 - 1540.











allegory = an image that symbolically illustrates an idea, concept, or principle, often moral or religious
"The moral is that folly blinds one to the jealousy and fraud of sensual love, which time reveals." - Janson's History of Art
Bronzino, Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, c. 1546.











Burial of Count Orgaz

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos), Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586.