Renaissance Mastery
Four of Sofonisba's five sisters were also trained painters, but not her brother. The second eldest sister, Elena, studied under Bernardino Campi but gave up art after becoming a nun. Two of the other sisters ended their artistic pursuits when they married, and the last died at an early age. Sofonisba would go on to become the Spanish King Phillip's court painter and the first internationally recongnized woman artist.
Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of the Anguissola Sisters and Brother, 1555. Oil on wood.











Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495 - 1498.












Secco Fresco = wall painting technique where pigments mixed with an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto a dry plaster. The paints used can e.g. be casein paint, tempera, oil paint, silicate mineral paint.
































Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503.



Sfumato = Italian for "gone up in smoke." In painting, the effect of haze in an image. Resembling the color of the atmosphere at dusk, sfumato gives a smoky effect.











Raphael, Young Woman on a Balcony, c. 1504. Pen and ink drawing.











Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503. Oil on panel 30 1/4 x 21 inches. Musée du Louvre.
Unknown, Mona Lisa, c. 1503 - 1505, oil on panel. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid.











Domenico Ghirlandaio, Giovanna Tornabuoni nee Albizzi, 1488.
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503.











Characteristics of Raphael's style:
Idealized faces/ figures
Graceful pose
Superb draftsmanship
Pyramidal compositon
Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1505 - 1506.











Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Parnassus (left) School of Athens (right), 1510 - 1511.
Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Cardinal Virtues under Justice, 1510-1511.











Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Disputa, 1510 - 1511.
Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Parnassus, 1510 - 1511.


Themes of the Stanza della Segnatura:
  • Philosophy
School of Athens
  • Theology - disputation of the Holy Sacrament
  • Poetry - music & art
  • Law - fortitude, prudence, & temperance
Cardinal Virtues Under Justice