Establishing a Canon
Let's revisit the syllabus!
Exam 1 will open Friday, September 27 and must be submitted by 11:59 PM on Monday, September 30
  • Worth a maximum of 50 points;
  • Will be comprised of image identification, multiple choice, fill in the blank, matching, and short answer essay questions;
  • Students in need of testing accommodations, please confirm with me that testing parameters are suitable











Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503.



Sfumato = Italian for "gone up in smoke." In painting, the effect of haze in an image. Resembling the color of the atmosphere at dusk, sfumato gives a smoky effect.











Raphael, Young Woman on a Balcony, c. 1504. Pen and ink drawing.











The subject has long been believed to be Lisa del Giocondo, but further evidence is needed to verify this.

In English, the painting is known as the "Mona Lisa" - "Mona" is a contraction of "madonna" which is a polite form of address in Italian, often used to indicate that the woman referred to is a mother.

The Italians lovingly call the painting, "La Gioconda" - "jocund" means happy or jovial; and is a pun on the subject's last name, Giocondo. Similarly, the French refer to the painting as "La Joconde."

Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503. Oil on panel 30 1/4 x 21 inches. Musée du Louvre.
Unknown, Mona Lisa, c. 1503 - 1505, oil on panel. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid.











Domenico Ghirlandaio, Giovanna Tornabuoni nee Albizzi, 1488.
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503.
Michelangelo was an apprentice to Ghirlandaio from the age of 13 to 17.











Mona Lisa at the National Gallery, 1963
Crowds clamor to take a photo of the Mona Lisa at the Louvre











Sold at auction in 2017 to Saudi Prince Badr bin Abdullah for $450.3 million, making it the most expensive work of art sold at auction.
Salvator Mundi after cleaning in 2007
Leonardo da Vinci, Salvator Mundi, 1490 - 1500.











Raphael, Madonna di San Sisto, 1512.











Characteristics of Raphael's style:
Idealized faces/ figures
Graceful pose
Superb draftsmanship
Pyramidal compositon
Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1505 - 1506.











Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Parnassus (left) School of Athens (right), 1510 - 1511.
Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Cardinal Virtues under Justice, 1510-1511.











Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Disputa, 1510 - 1511.
Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Parnassus, 1510 - 1511.


Themes of the Stanza della Segnatura:
  • Philosophy
School of Athens
  • Theology - disputation of the Holy Sacrament
  • Poetry - music & art
  • Law - fortitude, prudence, & temperance
Cardinal Virtues Under Justice











School of Athens

Raphael, School of Athens, c. 1510 - 1511.