Renaissance Mastery
First Project now due on Canvas!
Four of Sofonisba's five sisters were also trained painters, but not her brother. The second eldest sister, Elena, studied under Bernardino Campi but gave up art to become a nun. Two of the other sisters ended their artistic pursuits when they married, and the last died at an early age. Sofonisba would go on to become Spanish King Phillip's court painter and the first internationally recongnized woman artist.
Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of the Anguissola Sisters and Brother, 1555. Oil on wood.











High Renaissance
1495 - 1520
  • Concept of the "Renaissance ideal" fully adopted by the aristocracy
  • Artists begin to be recognized as intellectuals rather than craftsmen
  • Artists receive more commissions from private sources than from the Church
  • Oil on canvas becomes preferred painting media
Leonardo da Vinci, study for Virgin and Child with
St. Anne and John the Baptist, 1499 - 1500.











Sfumato = Italian for "gone up in smoke." In painting, the effect of haze in an image. Resembling the color of the atmosphere at dusk, sfumato gives a smoky effect.


Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503.











Mona Lisa at the National Gallery, 1963
Crowds clamor to take a photo of the Mona Lisa at the Louvre













The subject has long been believed to be Lisa del Giocondo, but further evidence is needed to verify this.


In English, the painting is known as the "Mona Lisa" - "Mona" is a contraction of "madonna" which is a polite form of address in Italian, often used to indicate that the woman referred to is a mother.


The Italians lovingly call the painting, "La Gioconda" - "jocund" means happy or jovial; and is a pun on the subject's last name, Giocondo. Similarly, the French refer to the painting as "La Joconde."

Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503. Oil on panel 30 1/4 x 21 inches. Musée du Louvre.
Unknown, Mona Lisa, c. 1503 - 1505, oil on panel. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid.











Domenico Ghirlandaio, Giovanna Tornabuoni nee Albizzi, 1488.
Raphael, Young Woman on a Balcony, c. 1504. Pen and ink drawing.
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503.
Michelangelo was an apprentice to Ghirlandaio from the age of 13 to 17.











Sold at auction in 2017 to Saudi Prince Badr bin Abdullah for $450.3 million, making it the most expensive work of art sold at auction.
Salvator Mundi after cleaning in 2007
Leonardo da Vinci, Salvator Mundi, 1490 - 1500.











Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495 - 1498.











Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495 - 1498, photographed in 2017.











Restored refrectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Refrectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan after bombing in allied raid, 1943











(from left to right) Bartholomew, James Minor, Andrew | Judas, Peter, John | Christ | Thomas, James Major, Philip | Matthew, Thaddeus, Simon
Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495 - 1498.











Secco Fresco = wall painting technique where pigments mixed with an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto dry plaster. Casein, tempera, oil, and silicate mineral paints were used to create secco fresco wall paintings.






















Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508 - 1512.











Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel ceiling, 1508 - 1512.






















Michelangelo, Daniel, Sistine Chapel ceiling, 1508 - 1512.











Raphael, Madonna di San Sisto, 1512.











Characteristics of Raphael's style:
Idealized faces/ figures
Graceful pose
Superb draftsmanship
Pyramidal compositon
Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1505 - 1506.











Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Parnassus (left) School of Athens (right), 1510 - 1511.
Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Cardinal Virtues under Justice, 1510-1511.











Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Disputa, 1510 - 1511.
Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Parnassus, 1510 - 1511.


Themes of the Stanza della Segnatura:
  • Philosophy
School of Athens
  • Theology - disputation of the Holy Sacrament
  • Poetry - music & art
  • Law - fortitude, prudence, & temperance
Cardinal Virtues Under Justice











School of Athens

Raphael, School of Athens, c. 1510 - 1511.