Early Renaissance in Northern Europe
 
Als ich chan = "The best that I am capable of doing"
 
Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban, 1433.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Medici in Florence
Medici
banking family in the Republic of Florence who rose to political power in the 15th century; in the 16th century, more than half the people of Florence were employed by the family in some capacity
Peter Paul Rubens, Disembarkation of Marie de Medici at Marseilles, 1622 - 1625
 
1397
Medici Bank founded; will become Europe's largest
1434
Exiled Cosimo de Medici returns to Florence and unofficial rule
1440
Platonic Academy founded in Florence
1445
Guttenberg begins selling one of the first books published with movable type in the West (movable type invented in China about 400 years earlier)
1464 - 1469
Piero de Medici rules
1469 - 1492
Lorenzo "the Magnificent" rules Florence
1494
Medici bank fails; Medici exiled from Florence
1512
Medici exile ends
1513 - 1521
Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici becomes Pope Leo X
 
Grants indulgences for parishoners who donate towards the construction of St. Peter's Basilica
1523 - 1534
Giulio di Guliano de Medici becomes Pope Clement VII

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andrea Pisano, Florence Baptistry di San Giovanni (south), 1329 - 1336.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Filippo Brunelleschi, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistry of Florence Cathedral,
1401 - 1402.
Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistry of Florence Cathedral,
1401 – 1402.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise (East Doors of Florence Baptistry), 1425 - 1452.

 

Restoration of Baptistry Doors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vassari described the east doors of the Florence Baptistry as "undeniably perfect in every way and must rank as the finest masterpiece ever created."
 
bas relief = a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief

Lorenzo Ghiberti, Story of Abraham (East Doors of Florence Baptistry), 1425 - 1452.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lorenzo Ghiberti, Adam and Eve (East Doors of Florence Baptistry), 1425 - 1452.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lorenzo Ghiberti, Jacob and Esau, c. 1435.

 

"And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to enquire of the Lord. And the Lord said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger." (Genesis 25:22–23)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
"I strove to imitate nature as clearly as I could, and with all the perspective I could produce, to have excellent compositions with many figures." - Lorenzo Ghiberti
 
Ghiberti, Self-Portrait, Ghiberti from the Gates of Paradise (East doors of the Florence Baptistry), c. 1435.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renaissance = 14th century to 17th century
 
Northern Renaissance
art north of the Alps in Flanders, Netherlands, and Normandy
1450s - 1550
Early Renaissance
Italian art in Tuscany
1400 - 1500
High Renaissance
Italian art in Rome, Florence and Venice
1500 - 1527
Mannerism
art in Florence, Rome, Venice, Spain and France
1530s - 1600

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Petrus Christus, A Goldsmith (Saint Eligius?) in His Shop, 1449.
Perugino, Christ Delivering the Keys to Saint Peter,
c. 1481 - 1482.
 
Differences between Early Renaissance in the North and in Italy
 
      • Humanism does not make a great impact in North until 15th century
      • Northern artists did not entirely reject the preceding Gothic style
      • Northern artists more concerned with Christianity than Classical mythology
      • New style evident mostly in painting in the North

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In middle ages, illuminated manuscripts, tapestries and metalwork were the most highly valued art forms. By the 15th century, panel painting quickly became the most prized.
St. John the Evangelist from the Gospel Book of Abbot Wedcricus, 1147.
Rogier van der Weyden, Saint John Altarpiece, 1455 - 1460.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Netherlandish artists recognized as most remarkable innovators:

      Robert Campin

      Jan van Eyck

      Rogier van der Weyden

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece (Triptych of the Annunciation), c. 1425 - 1428. Oil on oak panel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

altarpieces

Altars and Altarpieces

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annunciation scene = the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel
to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus

 

Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece (Triptych of the Annunciation) detail, c. 1425 - 1428.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece (Triptych of the Annunciation), c. 1425 - 1428.
 
Flowers =

associated with the Virgin

 
No flame =

God has become human, “the Word was made flesh”

Lilies =

Mary's virginity

Radiance of the Lord’s presence has overcome material light

Roses =
Virgin’s charity
Boxlike objects on workbench and window ledge =

mousetraps;

Violets =
Virgin’s humility

According to St. Augustine, God had to appear on earth in human form to fool Satan: “the cross of the Lord was the devil’s mousetrap”

Basin & towel =

Mary as the “vessel most clean”