Early Renaissance in Northern Europe
 
Als ich chan = "The best that I am capable of doing"
 
Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban, 1433.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renaissance = 14th century to 17th century
 
Northern Renaissance
art in Flanders, Netherlands, and Normandy
1400 - 1550
Early Renaissance
Italian art in Tuscany
1400 - 1500
High Renaissance
Italian art in Rome, Florence and Venice
1500 - 1527
Mannerism
art in Florence, Rome, Venice, Spain and France
1520 - 1600

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Petrus Christus, A Goldsmith (Saint Eligius?) in His Shop, 1449.
Perugino, Christ Delivering the Keys to Saint Peter,
c. 1481 - 1482.
 
Differences between Early Renaissance in the North and in Italy
 
      • Humanism does not make a great impact in North until 15th century
      • Northern artists did not entirely reject the preceding Gothic style
      • Northern artists more concerned with Christianity than Classical mythology
      • New style evident mostly in painting in the North

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

St. John the Evangelist from the Gospel Book of Abbot Wedcricus, 1147.
Rogier van der Weyden, Saint John Altarpiece, 1455 - 1460.
 
In middle ages, illuminated manuscripts, tapestries and metalwork were the most highly valued art forms. By the 15th century, panel painting quickly became the most prized.
 
Three Netherlandish artists recognized as most remarkable innovators:

      Robert Campin

      Jan van Eyck

      Rogier van der Weyden

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece (Triptych of the Annunciation), c. 1425 - 1428.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

altarpieces

Altars and Altarpieces

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disguised symbolism = elements of a painting that are treated as an ordinary part of the scene,
but that carry symbolic meaning
         
Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece (Triptych of the Annunciation), c. 1425 - 1428.
 
Flowers =

associated with the Virgin

 
No flame =

God has become human, “the Word was made flesh”

Lilies =

Mary's virginity

Radiance of the Lord’s presence has overcome material light

Roses =
Virgin’s charity
Boxlike objects on workbench and window ledge =

mousetraps;

Violets =
Virgin’s humility

According to St. Augustine, God had to appear on earth in human form to fool Satan: “the cross of the Lord was the devil’s mousetrap”

Basin & towel =

Mary as the “vessel most clean”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

tempera  = a fast drying, water-based paint that
uses egg yolk as a binder
oil paint = a slow drying paint that
uses lindseed oil as a binder

Birth of Venus

Arnolfini Marriage

Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, c. 1484-86.
Tempera on canvas.
Jan van Eyck, Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini (?) and His Wife, Giovanna Cenami, 1434. Oil on panel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (open), completed 1432.

 

The Ghent Altarpiece in one hundred billion pixels

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jan van Eyck. Adam and Eve details of the Ghent Altarpiece.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jan van Eyck, Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife, Giovanna Cenami, 1434.