Early Renaissance in Italy
 
"I strove to imitate nature as clearly as I could, and with all the perspective I could produce, to have excellent compositions with many figures." - Lorenzo Ghiberti
 
Essay 1 Due September 19
Ghiberti, Self-Portrait, Ghiberti from the Gates of Paradise (East doors), c. 1435.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Middle Ages
 

476

Fall of the Roman Empire

859 - 1088

First universities established

1066

Norman conquest of England

1095 - 1099

First Crusade called by the Pope to retake the Holy Lands from the Muslims

1250

Persecution of witches begins in France
Black Death

1284

Invention of wearable eyeglasses

1300

Dry mariner's compass developed after ancient Chinese models

1337 - 1453

Hundred Years' War between France and England

1340s

Black Death kills about 75 million people worldwide

1378 - 1417

Great Schism divides the Roman Catholic Church into eastern and western traditions

1387 - 1400

Chaucer writes the Canterbury Tales

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Black Death (Bubonic Plague) began in 1346, and quickly spread throughout Europe until 1353.
It is estimated that 30 to 60% of Europe's population was killed by the plague.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February page
Paul, Herman and Jean Limbourg, Page with February and June from Tres Riches Heures, 1413 - 1416.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West façade Chartres Cathedral, France, c. 1145 - 1155.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Madonna Enthroned
Madonna Enthroned, late 13th century. Tempera on panel.
Detail of Christ of the Pentacost. Saint Madeleine Cathedral, France. 1125 - 1150.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renaissance = 14th century to 17th century
 
Northern Renaissance
art in Flanders, Netherlands, and Normandy
1400 - 1550
Early Renaissance
Italian art in Tuscany
1400 - 1500
High Renaissance
Italian art in Rome, Florence and Venice
1500 - 1527
Mannerism
art in Florence, Rome, Venice, Spain and France
1520 - 1600

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001 - 1031.
Doors with relief panels commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael's of Hildesheim, Germany, 1015. Bronze, height approx. 16'.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

God Accusing Adam & Eve, detail of the left door of Saint Michael's Cathedral, Hildesheim, Germay.
Bronze, approx. 23" X 43".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of Renaissance art:

Ghent Adam and Eve

Reflects admiration of classic art
Sense of stability and order
Emphasis on logic and reason
Idealized form

Adam & Eve Reproached by the Lord from
the Doors of Bishop Bernward, 1015.

Jan van Eyck, Adam and Eve
(details of the Ghent Altarpiece), 1432.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giotto di Bondone, Frescoes in the Arena Chapel, 1305 - 1306.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giotto di Bondone, Marriage at Cana, Raising of Lazarus, Resurrection and Noli Me Tangere, and Lamentation, 1305 - 1306.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giotto di Bondone, The Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Italy, c. 1305.  Fresco.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lamentation
The Daphne Crucifixion, 11th century.
Giotto di Bondone, Lamentation, c. 1305.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vasari credited Giotto with “setting art upon the path that may be called the true one [for he] learned to draw accurately from life and thus put an end to the crude Greek manner.”
Giotto di Bondone, detail of The Lamentation, c. 1305.  Fresco.