Cubism
 
Timeline Due :0)
 
Socratic Circle Final Exam on
Tuesday, December 12
10:45 to 1:15 PM
Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Socratic Circle Areas of Expertise
Early Renaissance
Lindsey Di Fante
 
Romanticism
Justine Sitton
High Renaissance in Italy
Bryce Viorst
 
Early photography
Delaney Watters
High Ren in N Europe
Callahan Loftus
 
Realism
Rim Mizumoto
 
Christina Cardino
 
Pre-Raphaelite
Mannerism in Italy
Raymond Walter
 
Impressionism
Caroline Cogliani
Mannerism in N Europe
Alexa Bouton
 
Post Impressionism
Katie Kotar
Mannerism in Spain
Hanna Ohaus
 
Symbolism
Samantha Webster
Baroque Italy
Emily Claudy
 
Fauvism
Rebecca Maehara
Baroque Spain
Elisabeth Cooper
 
Expressionism
Caroline Spogli
Baroque in Flanders
Riri Tamura
 
Cubism
Ann Marie Maciel
Baroque in Netherlands
 
Dada
Rococo
Sarah Taketa
 
Surrealism
Neoclassicism
Jonah Tipp
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edouard Manet. A Bar at the Folies-Bergere. 1881-1882.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
1861 - 1865
Civil War in the United States
Forever Free
1865
Assassination of Lincoln
1869
Susan B. Anthony organizes Women's Suffrage movement
1870
Franco Prussian War
1876
Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
1879
First light bulb invented
1885
First automobiles
1886 Last Impressionist exhibition
1894
Development of motion pictures
   
Edmonia Lewis, Forever Free, 1867.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Impressionsim
1885 - 1900
 
"I had wrung Impressionism dry, and I finally came to the conclusion that I knew neither how to paint nor how to draw. In a word, Impressionism was a blind alley, as far as I was concerned." - Renoir
 
Pierre- Auguste Renoir, The Bathers, 1918.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-impressionism = general term applied to various personal styles of painting that developed as a reaction against the formless and aloof quality of Impressionism.
 
  • Post-Impressionists developed very personal styles
  • Artists begin to focus on individual expression
  • General move towards complete abstraction
Vincent Van Gogh, Bedroom, 1889.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Style:
Clear and cohesive; characterized by loose, quick brushwork, and an examination of color and light
Various artists develop personal styles
 
Goal:
To capture momentary impressions
No overall goal
Some sought to solidify form and composition
Some sought personal and spiritural expression
 
Typical subject:
Nature and everyday life
Continued move away from naturalism towards complete abstraction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paul Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire, c. 1885 - 1887.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Basket of Apples, 1890 – 1894.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paul Cezanne, The Large Bathers, 1906.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday on La Grande Jatte

Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte, 1884 - 1886.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Detail of Sunday on La Grande Jatte

divisionism (pointilism) = style of painting in which non-primary colors are generated, not by the mixing of pigments in the palette nor by using pigments directly, but by the visual mixing of points of primary colors, placed in close proximity to each other
"I painted like that because I wanted to get through to something new - a kind of painting that was my own."
- Georges Seurat
Detail of Sunday on La Grande Jatte

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Self-portrait with Bandaged Ear

Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait with Bandaged Ear, 1889.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Starry Night

Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889.

 

"Just as we take the train to get to Tarascon or Rouen, we take death to reach a star." - Vincent van Gogh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vincent Van Gogh, Irises, 1889.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Van Gogh's new way of seeing:
 
  • Exploited new colors
  • Used color symbolically, for personal expression
  • Distorted forms
  • Worked very rapidly
  • Often worked straight from the tube
  • Impasto = thick applications of pigment that give a painting a palpable surface texture
 
 
Vincent Van Gogh, Dr. Gachet, 1890.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hokusai, Sudden Gust of Wind, 1832.
Vincent Van Gogh, The Sower, 1888.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1887 melanotype showing Emile Bernard (second from the left), Vincent van Gogh (third from the left),
André Antoine (standing at center), and Paul Gauguin (far right) in a group photo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day of the God

Paul Gauguin, Mahana no atua (Day of the God), 1894.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spirit of the Dead Watching

Paul Gauguin, Spirit of the Dead Watching, 1892.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symbolism
  • Opposed the values of rationalism and material progress
  • Explored the nonmaterial realms of emotion, imagination, and spirituality
  • Sought a deeper understanding of reality than encountered in everyday life
Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Ensor, Christ's Entry Into Brussels, 1889.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Twentieth Century - the age of "isms"

 

Historical Context

Rapid change characterizes turn of 20th century

   
1900
Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams

Cities install electric street lamps while indoor plumbing and electricity installed in homes

Kodak introduces $1 Brownie cameras
Max Planck formulates Quantum Theory
1903
Wright Brothers’ first flight
1905
Einstein proposes Theory of Relativity
Freud publishes Theory of Sexuality
1908
Henry Ford introduces the Model T
1912
Titanic sinks
1914 - 1918
World War I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, 1892 - 1895.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of 20th century art are the characteristics of the century itself:
Rapid change
Diversity
Individualism
Exploration
 
Sleep
Sleeping Muse
The Newborn
Constantin Brancusi, Sleep, 1908.
Constantin Brancusi, Sleeping Muse, 1909 - 1911.
Constantin Brancusi, The Newborn, 1915.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Several broad tendencies mark modern works:
Tendency towards abstraction
Tendency to emphasize physical process involved in creation of the work
Continual questioning of the nature of art
 
Mary Cassatt,
Woman in Black Hat, 1900.
Henri Matisse,
Woman with a Hat, 1905.
Gabrielle Munter, Portrait of Marianne von Werefkin, 1909.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three main currents in art:
Expressionism
Abstraction
Fantasy
 

 

 

Paula Moderson-Becker,
Self-Portrait, 1906.

Pablo Picasso,
La Rêve
, 1932.
Gustav Klimt,
The Kiss
, 1907 - 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expressionism =
general term for art that emphasizes inner feelings and emotions over objective depiction
 
a modernist art movement that was a manifestation of subjective feeling toward objective reality and the world of imagination. Characterized by bold, vigorous brushwork, emphatic line, and bright color
 
 
Egon Schiele, Nude Self-Portrait, Grimacing, 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of Expressionist Styles:
 
Desire to express attitudes and emotions
Vivid imagery
Often angular, simplified depictions
Dramatic use of color
Bold, sometimes crude brushwork
Sense of liberation and experimentation
 
Henri Matisse, The Joy of Life, 1905 - 1906.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fauvism
1905 - 1907
 
les fauves = the wild beasts

 

 

Henri Matisse, Woman with the Hat, 1905.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mountains at Collioure

Andre Derain, Mountains at Collioure, 1905.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henri Matisse, Red Room (Harmony in Red), 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Die Brucke (The Bridge
1905
 
"Named for a passage in Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra that spoke of contemporary humanity's potential to be the evolutionary bridge to a more perfect superman of the future." - Marilyn Stokstad

 

 

Street, Berlin

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Berlin, 1913.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bue Rider Group
1911

 

Improvisation No. 30

Vassily Kandinsky, Improvisation No. 30 (Cannons), 1913.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Synesthesia = sensation felt in one part of the body when another part is stimulated

 

"Color is the keyboard, the eyes are the hammers, the soul is the piano with many strings.
The artist is the hand that plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul." - Vassily Kandinsky

 

Vassily Kandinsky, Composition No. 8, 1923.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstraction
Bird in Space
 
Essence = that which makes something what it is; intrinsic, fundamental nature or most important quality
 
"Simplicity is not a means to an end in art, but one arrives at simplicity in spite of oneself, in approaching the real sense of things." - Brancusi
 
Constantin Brancusi, Bird in Space, c. 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Les Demoiselles D'Avignon

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Les Demoiselles D'Avignon
N'gil Fang Mask, Gabon
Ancient Iberian sculpture
Type of Women
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907.
Edmond Fortier. Type of Women, West Africa. 1906.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georges Braque (brak) saw Les Demoiselles in Picasso's studio in 1907 and was powerfully moved.
 
The two artists immediately began to discuss their ideas about form.
Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, 1950.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picasso and Braque based their investigations on three concepts important to Cezanne:
geometricity (simplifying form into shape), simultaneity (multiple views), and passage (time).
     
Paul Cezanne,
Standing Nude Woman,
c. 1898 - 1899.
Pablo Picasso,
Nude with Raised Arm and Drapery, 1907.
Georges Braque,
Big Nude,
1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the summer of 1908, Braque made a series of landscape paintings in the small French fishing village, L'Estaque, that became more and more abstract.
 
L'Estaque today
Georges Braque, The Viaduct at L'Estaque,
1907 - 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georges Braque, The Viaduct at L'Estaque, 1908.
Georges Braque, The Viaduct at L'Estaque, 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Critic Louis Vauxcelles described the works as "bizarre cubes," and Henri Mattise called them "little cube" paintings.
 
Georges Braque, Houses at L'Estaque, 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cubism sought to portray the experience of a form -
     
     
how the mind understands an object rather than how the eye sees it.
     
Robert Delaunay, Eiffel Tower, 1911.
Juan Gris, Still Life with Flowers, 1912.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dora Maar
Man Ray, Picasso and Maar, n.d.
 
Man Ray, Dora Maar, n.d.
Pablo Picasso, Dora Maar au Chat, 1941.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rule Breaking Characteristizes Cubism:
  • Bodies broken into small planes, tilted and askew
  • Background and foreground blended to compress space
  • Linear perspective and realism ignored
  • Space and time flow through figure because they are not fixed
Georges Braque, The Portuguese, 1911.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"You may give all the explanations you like, but your painting makes one feel as if you were trying to make us eat cotton waste and wash it down with kerosene." - Georges Braque
The Doof Wagon (left) accompanies Immortan Joe's Gigahorse - a Siamese twin of two 1959 Cadillac Devilles on steroids - in hot pursuit across the desert.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two phases of Cubism
 
Analytic Cubism
1909 - 1911
Subject broken down into pieces that are spread out
Key Phrase -> simultaneity of vision
 
Synthetic Cubism
1912 - 1914
Unrelated pieces built up to create a unified form
Key Phrase -> metamorphosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analytic Cubism
Synthetic Cubism
   
Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick, 1910.
Pablo Picasso, The Violin, 1913.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Still Life with Chair Caning

Pablo Picass, Still Life with Chair Caning, 1911 - 1912.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guernica

Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937.

 

"Painting is not done to decorate apartments. It is an instrument of war for attack and defense against the enemy." - Picasso

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thank you!

Gracias

Grazie

Merci

Danke