The Modern World
     
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
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Modernism = philosophy that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct, and reshape their lives, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology, an dpractical experimentation. Rooted in urban culture, where leisure activities as well as daily necessities are available commercially, modernity refers to the condition of post-industrial, capitalist society. Associated with ideas of progress and novelty, modernism reflects the dominant ethos of a society in which consumption plays a central role in one's daily activities. Because of its capitalist base, modernity emphasizes change and continual improvement often at the expense of the worker.
Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere,
1881 - 1882.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881-1882.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Slave Ship

Joseph Mallard William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joseph Nicephore Niepce, View from His Window at Le Gras, c. 1827. Heliograph.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joseph Nicephore Niepce, View from His Window at Le Gras,
c. 1827. Heliograph.
Re-photographed with silver gelatin in the 1950s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Artist's Studio
The Open Door
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, Still Life in Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype.
William Fox Talbot, The Open Door, 1843. Salted paper print from calotype negative.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype
Salted paper print
from calotype negative
Albumen paper print
from glass plate negative

Southworth and Hawes, Portrait of an Unknown Woman, c. 1850.
David Octavius Hill, Miss Crampton of Dublin, c. 1845.
Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1865.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Realism = term used to describe a kind of naturalism with a socialist political message
  • Based on the idea that ordinary people and everyday activities are worthy subjects for art
  • Strives to depict ordinary existence without idealism, exoticism or nostalgia
  • Insisted on precise imitation of visual perceptions without alteration
Gustave Courbet, View of Ornans, 1850.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849 (destroyed during World War II). 8 1/2' X 5' 3".

 

Karl Marx and Friedrick Engels publish The Communist Manifesto in 1848

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gustave Courbet, The Painter's Studio, 1855. 12' X 19 1/2'.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Honore Daumier, The Third-Class Carriage, c. 1862.