The Modern World
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
Modernism = philosophy that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct, and reshape their lives, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology, an dpractical experimentation. Rooted in urban culture, where leisure activities as well as daily necessities are available commercially, modernity refers to the condition of post-industrial, capitalist society. Associated with ideas of progress and novelty, modernism reflects the dominant ethos of a society in which consumption plays a central role in one's daily activities. Because of its capitalist base, modernity emphasizes change and continual improvement often at the expense of the worker.
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Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.











Raft of the Medusa

Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.











Theodore Gericault, Study of Hands and Feet, 1818 - 1819.











Raft of the Medusa
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.











Eugene Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827.






















Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830.











Ingres vs. Delacroix
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with a Slave, 1839 - 1840.
Eugene Delacroix, Women of Algiers, 1834.
Those who favored line favored Ingres
Those who favored color favored Delacroix
  • Superb draftsmanship
  • Supreme colorist
  • Emphasis on line
  • Emphasis on drama and emotion
  • Ideal form
  • More painterly form
  • "Drawing includes three and a half quarters of the content of painting... Drawing contains everything, except the hue." - Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
  • "The artist who aims at perfection in everything achieves it in nothing." - Eugene Delacroix
  • Delacroix called the art of Ingres "the complete expression of an incomplete intellect"
  • Ingres instrumental in preventing Delacroix's election into Academeie des Beaux Arts until 1857











"Close your bodily eye, so that you may see your picture first with your spiritual eye then bring to the light of day that which you have seen in the darkness so that it may react on others from the outside inwards." - Caspar David Friedrich
Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above a Sea of Mist, c. 1818.










Romantic landscape painting generally took two forms:
The dramatic:
The naturalistic:
  • Emphasized turbulent or fantastic natural scenery
  • Presented closely observed images of tranquil nature
  • Aimed to stir viewer's emotions and arouse feeling of the sublime
  • Meant to communicate religious reverence of the landscape
  • Sublime = tending to inspire awe because of outstanding spiritual, intellectual or moral worth
  • Counters the alienating effects of industrialization

Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808 - 1810.
John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.











Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808 - 1810.











Caspar David Friedrich, Two Men Contemplating the Moon, 1819 - 1820.











John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.












Joseph Nicephore Niepce, View from His Window at Le Gras, c. 1827. Heliograph.











The Artist's Studio
The Open Door
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, Still Life in Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype.
William Fox Talbot, The Open Door, 1843. Salted paper print from calotype negative.











Salted paper print from calotype negative
Albumen paper print

Southworth and Hawes, Portrait of an Unknown Woman, c. 1850.
David Octavius Hill, Miss Crampton of Dublin, c. 1845.
Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1865.