Romanticism
 

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Thomas Gainsborough, Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1785 - 1787.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1769 Reynolds outlines his artistic theories in Discourses
Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
  • Artists should follow rules derived from great masters
  • Artists should learn their craft by copying the great masters
  • Art should be universal rather than particular
  • Highest art form was history painting
 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"I'm sick of portraits, and wish very much to walk off to some sweet village where I can paint landscapes." - Sir Joshua Reynolds

 
Grand Manner = an elevated style of painting popular in the 18th century in which the artist looked to the ancients and the Renaissance for inspiration: for portraits as well as history painting, the artist would adopt poses, compositions and attitudes of Renaissance and antique models
 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Diana Sackville, 1777.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
Mrs. Siddons
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.
Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Siddons, 1785.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanticism = General term used to describe late 18th century to early 19th century trend in art that stressed strong emotion and emphasized imagination
   
key principles = freedom and individuality

Large Odalisque

 
Characteristics of Romantic painting:
  • Loose, fluid brushwork
  • Strong colors
  • Expressive poses and gestures
  • Drew on literary sources
  • Often engaged in social criticism
  • Exoticising
 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

odalisque = female slave in the harem of a Turkish sultan
 
   
Large Odalisque
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814.
Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus Victorious, 1808.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neoclassicism
Romanticism

Oath of the Horatii

Third of May 1808
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 - 1815.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francisco Goya, Family of Charles IV, 1800.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francisco Goya, Nude Maja, c. 1797 - 1800.
Francisco Goya, Clothed Maja, c. 1800.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 - 1815.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturn Devouring His Children
Francisco Goya, Witches' Flight, 1797 - 1798.
Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children, 1819 - 1823.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raft of the Medusa

Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodore Gericault, Study of Hands and Feet, 1818 - 1819.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raft of the Medusa
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eugene Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827.
Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ingres vs. Delacroix
 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with a Slave, 1839 - 1840.
Eugene Delacroix, Women of Algiers, 1834.
   
Ingres appealed to those who favored line:
Delacroix appealed to those who favored color:
  • Superb draftsmanship
  • Supreme colorist
  • Emphasis on line
  • Emphasis on drama and emotion
  • Ideal form
  • More painterly form
  • "Drawing includes three and a half quarters of the content of painting... Drawing contains everything, except the hue." - Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
  • "The artist who aims at perfection in everything achieves it in nothing." - Eugene Delacroix
  • Delacroix called the art of Ingres "the complete expression of an incomplete intellect"
  • Ingres was instrumental in preventing Delacroix's election into Academeie des Beaux Arts until 1857

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romantic landscape painting generally took two forms:
 
The dramatic:
The naturalistic:
  • Emphasized turbulent or fantastic natural scenery
  • Presented closely observed images of tranquil nature
  • Aimed to stir viewer's emotions and arouse feeling of the sublime
  • Meant to communicate religious reverence of the landscape
  • Sublime = tending to inspire awe because of outstanding spiritual, intellectual or moral worth
  • Counters the alienating effects of industrialization
   

Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above a Sea of Mist, c. 1818.
Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808 - 1810.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Slave Ship

Joseph Mallard William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840.