The Modern World
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
Modernism = philosophy that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct, and reshape their lives, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology, an dpractical experimentation. Rooted in urban culture, where leisure activities as well as daily necessities are available commercially, modernity refers to the condition of post-industrial, capitalist society. Associated with ideas of progress and novelty, modernism reflects the dominant ethos of a society in which consumption plays a central role in one's daily activities. Because of its capitalist base, modernity emphasizes change and continual improvement often at the expense of the worker.
Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.











Edouard Manet. A Bar at the Folies-Bergere. 1881-1882.











Joseph Nicephore Niepce, View from His Window at Le Gras, c. 1827. Heliograph.











The Artist's Studio
The Open Door
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, Still Life in Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype.
William Fox Talbot, The Open Door, 1843. Salted paper print from calotype negative.











Salted paper print from calotype negative
Albumen paper print

Southworth and Hawes, Portrait of an Unknown Woman, c. 1850.
David Octavius Hill, Miss Crampton of Dublin, c. 1845.
Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1865.











Realism = term used to describe a kind of naturalism with a socialist political message
  • Based on the idea that ordinary people and everyday activities are worthy subjects for art
  • Strives to depict ordinary existence without idealism, exoticism or nostalgia
  • Insisted on precise imitation of visual perceptions without alteration
Gustave Courbet, View of Ornans, 1850.











Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849 (destroyed during World War II). 8 1/2' X 5' 3".


Karl Marx and Friedrick Engels publish The Communist Manifesto in 1848










Gustave Courbet, The Painter's Studio, 1855. 12' X 19 1/2'.











Jean Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857.











Honore Daumier, The Third-Class Carriage, c. 1862.











Luncheon on the Grass

Edouard Manet, Luncheon on the Grass (Le Dejeuner Sur L'Herbe), 1863.


"A commonplace woman of the demimonde, as naked as can be, shamelessly lolls between two dandies dressed to the teeth. These latter look like schoolboys on a holiday, perpetrating an outrage to play the man…this is a young man's practical joke-a shameful, open sore." - Gardner's Art Through the Ages
"I myself shouldn't like to meet this young man...I should be obliged to tell him I don't understand anything about his paintings, and I don't want to be disagreeable with him." - Gustave Courbet