George Washington
Jean-Antoine Houdon, George Washington,
1788 - 1792.
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps, 1801.









English Rococo
British middle class wanted:
  • Portraits
  • Moralizing genre scenes
  • Landscapes
Reflected Enlightenment values:
  • Interest in social progress
  • Embrace of natural beauty
  • Faith in reason and science
William Hogarth, The Marriage Contract from Marriage a la Mode, 1743 - 1745.











Thomas Gainsborough, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, c. 1748 - 1749.











Thomas Gainsborough, Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1785 - 1787.











1769 Reynolds outlines his artistic theories in Discourses
Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
  • Artists should follow rules derived from great masters
  • Artists should learn their craft by copying the great masters
  • Art should be universal rather than particular
  • Highest art form was history painting
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.












"I'm sick of portraits, and wish very much to walk off to some sweet village where I can paint landscapes." - Sir Joshua Reynolds

Grand Manner = an elevated style of painting popular in the 18th century in which the artist looked to the ancients and the Renaissance for inspiration: for portraits as well as history painting, the artist would adopt poses, compositions and attitudes of Renaissance and antique models
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Diana Sackville, 1777.











Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
Mrs. Siddons
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.
Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Siddons, 1785.










Romanticism = General term used to describe late 18th century to early 19th century trend in art that stressed strong emotion and emphasized imagination
key principles = freedom and individuality

Large Odalisque

Characteristics of Romantic painting:
  • Loose, fluid brushwork
  • Strong colors
  • Expressive poses and gestures
  • Drew on literary sources
  • Often engaged in social criticism
  • Exoticising
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814.











Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814.











odalisque = female slave in the harem of a Turkish sultan
Large Odalisque
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814.
Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus Victorious, 1808.