Neoclassicism v. Romanticism
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon in His Study at the Tuilaries, 1812.
Francisco de Goya, Portrait of Nicolas Philippe Guye, 1810.











Historic Context
Industrial Revolution 1760 - 1830
  • Rural poor move to new factory towns in search of employment
  • Growth of cities
  • Growth of capitalism


Numerous reform movements
  • Worker's and tenant's rights movements in Europe and America
  • Women's Suffrage movement
  • Abolitionist movement


Numerous inventions improve daily life
  • Telegraph
  • Telephone
  • Radio
  • Electric lights


Medical advancements dramatically reduce death rate
  • Vaccines
  • Pasteurization
  • Antiseptics
  • Sterilization methods


Science continues to challenge religious beliefs
  • Geologists conclude that Earth is much older than 6,000 years
  • Darwin proposes that all life evolved from common ancestor


1793 Louvre opened as first public museum
  • David becomes first director


Hubert Robert, Construction of the Grand Gallery of the Louvre, 1796.











Events of the American Revolution
1775 - 1783
Boston Tea Party
Battle of Lexington and Concord
Declaration of Independence
Constitution ratified
George Washington elected first President
John Singleton Copley, Paul Revere, c. 1768 - 1770.










George Washington
George Washington
Jean-Antoine Houdon, George Washington, 1788 - 1792.
Horatio Greenough, George Washington, 1832 - 1834.












Unknown architects and George Washington, The New Room, Mount Vernon, 1774 - 1799.
Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, 1772.











Death of General Wolfe
Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1770.

John Trumbull, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker’s Hill, June 17, 1775, 1786.











English Rococo
British middle class wanted:
  • Portraits
  • Moralizing genre scenes
  • Landscapes
Reflected Enlightenment values:
  • Interest in social progress
  • Embrace of natural beauty
  • Faith in reason and science
William Hogarth, The Marriage Contract from Marriage a la Mode, 1743 - 1745.











Thomas Gainsborough, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, c. 1748 - 1749.











Thomas Gainsborough, Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1785 - 1787.











1769 Reynolds outlines his artistic theories in Discourses
Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
  • Artists should follow rules derived from great masters
  • Artists should learn their craft by copying the great masters
  • Art should be universal rather than particular
  • Highest art form was history painting
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.











"I'm sick of portraits, and wish very much to walk off to some sweet village where I can paint landscapes." - Sir Joshua Reynolds

Grand Manner = an elevated style of painting popular in the 18th century in which the artist looked to the ancients and the Renaissance for inspiration: for portraits as well as history painting, the artist would adopt poses, compositions and attitudes of Renaissance and antique models
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Diana Sackville, 1777.











Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
Mrs. Siddons
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.
Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Siddons, 1785.











Romanticism = General term used to describe late 18th century to early 19th century trend in art that stressed strong emotion and emphasized imagination
key principles = freedom and individuality

Large Odalisque

Characteristics of Romantic painting:
  • Loose, fluid brushwork
  • Strong colors
  • Expressive poses and gestures
  • Drew on literary sources
  • Often engaged in social criticism
  • Exoticising
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814.











Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814.











odalisque = female slave in the harem of a Turkish sultan
Large Odalisque
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814.
Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus Victorious, 1808.








Oath of the Horatii

Third of May 1808
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 - 1815.











Francisco Goya, Family of Charles IV, 1800.











Francisco Goya, Nude Maja, c. 1797 - 1800.
Francisco Goya, Clothed Maja, c. 1800.











Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 - 1815.











Saturn Devouring His Children
Francisco Goya, Witches' Flight, 1797 - 1798.
Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children, 1819 - 1823.











Raft of the Medusa

Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.











Theodore Gericault, Study of Hands and Feet, 1818 - 1819.











Raft of the Medusa
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.