Romanticism
 
"For me, a picture should be a pleasant thing, joyful and pretty- yes pretty! There are quite enough unpleasant things in life without the need for us to manufacture more." - Renoir
J.M.W. Turner, Snowstorm: Snow Storm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth, 1842.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanticism = General term used to describe late 18th century to early 19th century trend in art that stressed strong emotion and emphasized imagination
   
key principles = freedom and individuality

Large Odalisque

 
Characteristics of Romantic painting:
  • Loose, fluid brushwork
  • Strong colors
  • Expressive poses and gestures
  • Drew on literary sources
  • Often engaged in social criticism
  • Exoticising
 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

odalisque = female slave in the harem of a Turkish sultan
 
   
Large Odalisque
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814.
Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus Victorious, 1808.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francisco Goya, Family of Charles IV, 1800.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 - 1815.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neoclassicism
Romanticism

Oath of the Horatii

Third of May 1808
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 - 1815.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francisco Goya, Nude Maja, c. 1797 - 1800.
Francisco Goya, Clothed Maja, c. 1800.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturn Devouring His Children
Francisco Goya, Witches' Flight, 1797 - 1798.
Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children, 1819 - 1823.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raft of the Medusa

Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodore Gericault, Study of Hands and Feet, 1818 - 1819.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raft of the Medusa
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eugene Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ingres vs. Delacroix
 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with a Slave, 1839 - 1840.
Eugene Delacroix, Women of Algiers, 1834.
   
Those who favored line favored Ingres
Those who favored color favored Delacroix
  • Superb draftsmanship
  • Supreme colorist
  • Emphasis on line
  • Emphasis on drama and emotion
  • Ideal form
  • More painterly form
  • Delacroix called the art of Ingres "the complete expression of an incomplete intellect"
  • Ingres instrumental in preventing Delacroix's election into Academeie des Beaux Arts until 1857

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romantic landscape painting generally took two forms:
 
The dramatic:
The naturalistic:
  • Emphasized turbulent or fantastic natural scenery
  • Presented closely observed images of tranquil nature
  • Aimed to stir viewer's emotions and arouse feeling of the sublime
  • Meant to communicate religious reverence of the landscape
  • Sublime = tending to inspire awe because of outstanding spiritual, intellectual or moral worth
  • Counters the alienating effects of industrialization
   

Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808 - 1810.
John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808 - 1810.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caspar David Friedrich, Two Men Contemplating the Moon, 1819 - 1820.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above a Sea of Mist, 1824.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Slave Ship

Joseph Mallard William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner, Snowstorm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps, 1812.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacques Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard, 1800 - 1801.
Joseph Mallord William Turner, Snowstorm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps, 1812.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Before 1825, Americans considered nature menacing. The first thing colonial settlers did was burn or hack down vast tracts of virgin woods to make clearings for fields and villages. They admired nature only when it was tamed in plantations and gardens. After 1830, America's natural wonders became a bragging point as tides of settlers poured westward, pushing back frontiers, the wilderness became a symbol of America's unspoiled national character." - Marilyn Stokstad
The Oxbow
Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836.