The Grand Manner
"Close your bodily eye, so that you may see your picture first with your spiritual eye then bring to the light of day that which you have seen in the darkness so that it may react on others from the outside inwards." - Caspar David Friedrich
Architectural Analysis or Timeline Due!
Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above a Sea of Mist, c. 1818.











English Rococo
British middle class wanted:
  • Portraits
  • Moralizing genre scenes
  • Landscapes
Reflected Enlightenment values:
  • Interest in social progress
  • Embrace of natural beauty
  • Faith in reason and science
William Hogarth, The Marriage Contract from Marriage a la Mode, 1743 - 1745.











Thomas Gainsborough, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, c. 1748 - 1749.











Thomas Gainsborough, Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1785 - 1787.











1769 Reynolds outlines his artistic theories in Discourses
Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
  • Artists should follow rules derived from great masters
  • Artists should learn their craft by copying the great masters
  • Art should be universal rather than particular
  • Highest art form was history painting
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.











"I'm sick of portraits, and wish very much to walk off to some sweet village where I can paint landscapes." - Sir Joshua Reynolds

Grand Manner = an elevated style of painting popular in the 18th century in which the artist looked to the ancients and the Renaissance for inspiration: for portraits as well as history painting, the artist would adopt poses, compositions and attitudes of Renaissance and antique models
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Diana Sackville, 1777.











Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
Mrs. Siddons
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.
Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Siddons, 1785.











Events of the American Revolution
1775 - 1783
Boston Tea Party
Battle of Lexington and Concord
Declaration of Independence
Constitution ratified
George Washington elected first President
John Singleton Copley, Paul Revere, c. 1768 - 1770.











George Washington
George Washington
Jean-Antoine Houdon, George Washington, 1788 - 1792.
Horatio Greenough, George Washington, 1832 - 1834.











Death of General Wolfe
Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1770.

John Trumbull, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker’s Hill, June 17, 1775, 1786.











Historic Context
Industrial Revolution 1760 - 1830
  • Rural poor move to new factory towns in search of employment
  • Growth of cities
  • Growth of capitalism


Numerous reform movements
  • Worker's and tenant's rights movements in Europe and America
  • Women's Suffrage movement
  • Abolitionist movement


Numerous inventions improve daily life
  • Telegraph
  • Telephone
  • Radio
  • Electric lights


Medical advancements dramatically reduce death rate
  • Vaccines
  • Pasteurization
  • Antiseptics
  • Sterilization methods


Science continues to challenge religious beliefs
  • Geologists conclude that Earth is much older than 6,000 years
  • Darwin proposes that all life evolved from common ancestor


1793 Louvre opened as first public museum
  • David becomes first director










Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon in His Study at the Tuilaries, 1812.
Francisco de Goya, Portrait of Nicolas Philippe Guye, 1810.