Grand Manner
"Drawing includes three and a half quarters of the content of painting... Drawing contains everything, except the hue." - Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
"The artist who aims at perfection in everything achieves it in nothing." - Eugene Delacroix
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard, 1800 - 1801.











English Rococo
British middle class wanted:
  • Portraits
  • Moralizing genre scenes
  • Landscapes
Reflected Enlightenment values:
  • Interest in social progress
  • Embrace of natural beauty
  • Faith in reason and science
William Hogarth, The Marriage Contract from Marriage a la Mode, 1743 - 1745.










Joseph Wright, An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, 1768.











Thomas Gainsborough, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, c. 1748 - 1749.











Thomas Gainsborough, Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1785 - 1787.











1769 Reynolds outlines his artistic theories in Discourses
Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
  • Artists should follow rules derived from great masters
  • Artists should learn their craft by copying the great masters
  • Art should be universal rather than particular
  • Highest art form was history painting
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.











"I'm sick of portraits, and wish very much to walk off to some sweet village where I can paint landscapes." - Sir Joshua Reynolds

Grand Manner = an elevated style of painting popular in the 18th century in which the artist looked to the ancients and the Renaissance for inspiration: for portraits as well as history painting, the artist would adopt poses, compositions and attitudes of Renaissance and antique models
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Diana Sackville, 1777.











Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse
Mrs. Siddons
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784.
Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Siddons, 1785.










Grand Tour = educational tour of Europe (especially Italy)
Antonio Canaletto, Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice, c. 1735 - 1740.
Pompeo Batoni, Charles John Crowle, c. 1761 - 1762.











Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Points to Her Children as Her Treasures, c. 1758.