Grand Manner
"Close your bodily eye, so that you may see your picture first with your spiritual eye then bring to the light of day that which you have seen in the darkness so that it may react on others from the outside inwards." - Friedrich
Reminder! Exam 2 Due by 11:59 PM Tonight!!
Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above a Sea of Mist, c. 1818.











Significant Events of the French Revolution
1789 - 1799
Storming of the Bastille
Royal family removed from Versailles under house arrest
After much persuassion, Louis XVI agrees to attempt escape, but the royal family is caught within 24 hours and returned to Paris.
Royal family imprisoned in prison tower
Monarchy abolished and National Convention becomes governing body
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette convicted of high treason and beheaded
European states declare war against French Republic
1793 - 1795
Reign of Terror
Robespierre outlaws worship of God
40,000 suspected "royalists" killed
1796 - 1797
Napoleon conquers most of Italy
Napoleon abolishes papal rule
Napoleon controls France











Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785. 10' 8 1/4" X 14'.











Neoclassicism = new classicism
Characteristics of the Neoclassic style:
  • "Severe" style with an emphasis on line, order and reason
  • Polished technique (no sign of the hand of the artist)
  • Classicizing
  • Idealized
  • Moral message
  • Clear detail
Jacques-Louis David, The Sabine Women, 1799.











Death of Socrates
"Viewed by many as the founding figure of Western philosophy, Socrates (469-399 BC) is at once the most exemplary and the strangest of the Greek philosophers. His style of teaching-immortalized as the Socratic Method-involved not conveying knowledge but rather asking question after clarifying question until until his students arrived at their own understanding. He wrote nothing himself, so all that is known about him is filtered through the writings of a few contemporaries and followers, most of all, his student Plato. He was accused of corrupting the youth of Athens and sentenced to death. Choosing not to flee, he spent his final days in the company of his friends before drinking the executioner’s cup of poisonous hemlock," - History Channel
Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Socrates, 1787.











Death of Marat
Jacobins = totalitarian democrats who abolished the French monarchy and presided over the reign of terror
The Reign of Terror = period during the French Revolution when all perceived opponents of democracy and royal supporters were killed
Jean-Paul Marat = Jacobin leader and writer/ publisher of several political journals
"I wrote to you this morning, Marat, have you received my letter? I could not believe you had, as they refused me admittance; I trust that tomorrow you will accord me an interview. I repeat that I come from Caen. I have secrets to reveal to you of the utmost importance to the safety of the Republic. Besides all this, I am persectured for the cause of liberty. I am unhappy; this itself is sufficient to give me a claim on your protection. Charlotte Corday"
Jacques-Louis David, Death of Marat, 1793.











Death of Marat

Jacques-Louis David, Death of Marat, 1793.











"The Pieta of the Revolution"
Death of Marat
Michelangelo, Pietà, c. 1500.
Jacques-Louis David, Death of Marat, 1793.











The Swing
Jean-Honore Fragonard, The Swing, c. 1768.
Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Socrates, 1787.