Northern Baroque
Exam 2 will be posted on Friday, October 26 and will be due Monday, October 29
Vermeer, Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window, 1657–1659.






















Historical Context
17th century Netherlands split:
Antwerp sacked by Spanish troops and looses half its population
Netherlandish provinces declare independence from Spain; Spain soon recovers Flanders
United Dutch Republic (Holland) gains freedom from Spanish rule after 80 years of war
Flanders =
Southern Netherlands

Flower Still Life


  • Remains Catholic under Spanish rule
  • Artists rely on Church and Spanish regents for commissions
Rachel Ruysch, Flower Still Life, After 1700.











Italian Influence:
Flemish Influence:
  • Michelangelo's muscular bodies
  • Treatment of foliage
  • Caravaggio's foreshortening
  • Attention to detail
  • Intense emotion
  • Rich color


Raising of the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610 - 1611.


Raising of the Cross in situ










Characteristics of Rubens' style:
  • Dramatic, theatrical and dynamic
  • Fleshy, lively and robust figures
  • Composition revolves around light and and color
Rubens, Embarkation of Marie de Medici at Marselles, 1623 - 1625.






















The Garden of Love

Peter Paul Rubens, The Garden of Love, c. 1638.












Historical Context
Holland =
Northern Netherlands
Modern Belgium, part of France, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Utrecht, Levden and Delft
  • Gain independence from Spain
  • Reformed Church tolerates Protestants, Catholics and Jews
  • Artists compete for private patrons and specialize in new genres











Frans Hals, Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian, c. 1627.


Velazquez's influence:
Loose brushwork
Optical effects
Patches of color












Frans Hals, Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian, c. 1627.
Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, 1635.











The Proposition
The Procuress
Judith Leyster, The Proposition, 1631.
Dirck van Baburen, The Procuress, 1622.