Age of Enlightenment
 

Jan Vermeer, The Kitchen Maid, c. 1658.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historical Context
 
17th century Netherlands split:
1576
Antwerp sacked by Spanish troops and looses half its population
1581
Netherlandish provinces declare independence from Spain; Spain soon recovers Flanders
1648
United Dutch Republic (Holland) gains freedom from Spanish rule after 80 years of war
 
Flanders =
Southern Netherlands

Flower Still Life

Antwerp

  • Remains Catholic under Spanish rule
  • Artists rely on Church and Spanish regents for commissions
Holland =
Northern Netherlands
Modern Belgium, part of France, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Utrecht, Levden and Delft
  • Gain independence from Spain
  • Reformed Church tolerates Protestants, Catholics and Jews
  • Artists compete for private patrons and specialize in new genres
   
Rachel Ruysch, Flower Still Life, After 1700.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Proposition
The Procuress
Judith Leyster, The Proposition, 1631.
Dirck van Baburen, The Procuress, 1622.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italian Influence:
Flemish Influence:
  • Michelangelo's muscular bodies
  • Treatment of foliage
  • Caravaggio's foreshortening
  • Attention to detail
  • Intense emotion
  • Rich color

 

Raising of the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610 - 1611.

 

Raising of the Cross in situ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of Rubens' style:
  • Dramatic, theatrical and dynamic
  • Fleshy, lively and robust figures
  • Composition revolves around light and and color
 
Rubens, Embarkation of Marie de Medici at Marselles, 1623 - 1625.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Garden of Love

Peter Paul Rubens, The Garden of Love, c. 1638.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poussinistes vs. Rubenistes
 
Conservatives
Liberals
Favored line
Favored color
Believed that drawing appealed to the mind
Believed color was more true to nature than line
Drawing superior to color effects, because color appealed to the senses
Drawing appealed to the educated few, while color appealed to everyone

 

Landscape with Saint John on Patmos
Raising of the Cross
Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with Saint John on Patmos, 1640.
Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross,
1610 - 1611.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frans Hals, Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian, c. 1627.

 

Velazquez's influence:
 
Loose brushwork
Optical effects
Patches of color

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frans Hals, Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian,
c. 1627.
Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, 1635.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp

Rembrandt van Rijn, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Night Watch

Rembrandt van Rijn, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642.

 

commissioned by the military company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq