New Realism
Reminder: Visual Analysis 1 Due on Wednesday
Caravaggio, David with the Head of Goliath, 1606.











Garden of Earthly Delights

Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1505 - 1515.









Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights (closed), c. 1505 - 1515.











Hieronymus Bosch, detail Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1505 - 1515.











Wanderjahre = a tradition of setting out on travel for several years after finishing one’s apprenticeship as a craftsman. In 1494, and again in 1505, Albrecht Dürer traveled to Italy and was in contact with Bellini, Raphael & Da Vinci.

Durer Self-Portrait

Albrecht Dürer, Self-portrait, 1500.
Michelangelo, Pietà, c. 1500.











Durer Self-Portrait

Albrecht Dürer, Self-portrait, 1500.











Albrecht Dürer, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1497 - 1498.











Isenheim Altarpiece (closed)

Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), c. 1512 - 1515.











Diagram of the Isenheim Altarpiece











Jesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum = Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews
"The victims had no hope of recovery and this image was intended to bring them comfort and to reinforce their faith- the message is that Christ, whose broken body is shown covered in sores like those caused by the plague, understands their condition and suffers with them and for them." - Marilyn Stokstad











The Protestant Reformation
Four Apostles
1517 Luther post the "95 Theses"
95 Reforms he demands the Catholic Church make
Especially critical of the sale of indulgences
  • to rid the Church of pagan practices and rituals
  • promote importance of individual faith
  • thought devotion to the saints was distracting
  • placed responsibility on the faithful to read and interpret Bible for themselves
Albrecht Dürer, Four Apostles, 1526.









Historical Context
Beginning of Protestant Reformation
Death of Raphael
Sack of Rome - end of High Renaissance
Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church and establishes Church of England
Copernicus publishes theory in which planets revolve around sun
First scientific study of human anatomy based on dissections published
1545 - 1563
Counter Reformation begins with Council of Trent
Giorgio Vasari publishes The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth I reigns in England
1564 - 1616
William Shakespeare
Netherlands declare independence from Spain
Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg Germany on October 31, 1517.











Baroque period
1600 - 1750
Characteristics of the Baroque Style:
  • Interest in light and space
  • Rich use of color and dramatic contrasts
  • Innovative illusionism
  • More emphasis on emotion than reason
  • Multi-media extravaganza
Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623.











"New Realism" of Caravaggio
Caravaggio, Conversion of St. Paul, 1601.