Four of Sofonisba's five sisters were also trained painters, but not her brother. The second eldest sister, Elena, studied under Bernardino Campi but gave up art after becoming a nun. Two of the other sisters ended their artistic pursuits when they married, and the last died at an early age. Sofonisba would go on to become the Spanish King Phillip's court painter and the first internationally recongnized woman artist.
Exam 1 will open on Blackboard September 30, and must be submitted by 11:59 PM on October 3.
  • Worth a maximum of 50 points
  • Will be comprised of image identification, multiple choice, fill in the blank, matching, and short answer essay questions
Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of the Anguissola Sisters and Brother, 1555. Oil on wood.

**Students with testing accommodations, please confirm with me that testing parameters are suitable











Historical Context
Beginning of Protestant Reformation
Death of Raphael
Sack of Rome - end of High Renaissance
Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church and establishes Church of England
Copernicus publishes theory in which planets revolve around sun
First scientific study of human anatomy based on dissections published
1545 - 1563
Counter Reformation begins with Council of Trent
Giorgio Vasari publishes The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth I reigns in England
1564 - 1616
William Shakespeare
Netherlands declare independence from Spain











1520 to late 16th century
maniera = artificial
Michelangelo, Last Judgment, 1536 - 1541.











Michelangelo, detail of the Last Judgment, 1536 - 1541.











Renaissance vs. Mannerist Styles
  • Sought equilibrium
  • Sought instability
  • Harmonious
  • Dissonant
  • Reasonable
  • Emotional
  • Realistic
  • Imaginiative
Jacopo da Pontormo, Entombment of Christ, 1525 - 1528.











Characteristics of Mannerism:
  • Extraordinary technical skill
  • Elegant composition
  • Irrational spatial effects
  • Figures with elongated proportions, exaggerated pose, and enigmatic gestures
  • Erotic imagery
Rosso Fiorentino, Marriage of the Virgin, 1523.











Madonna with the Long Neck
Titian, Pesaro Madonna, 1526.
Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, 1534 - 1540.











sacra conversazione
paragoni = comparisons
disegno = drawing and design
colore or colorito = colored or painted
Raphael, Sistine Madonna, 1513 - 1514.
Bellini, Madonna and Child with Saints (San Zaccaria Altarpiece), 1505.











Andrea Mantengna, Detail of the ceiling of the Camera degli Sposi, 1465 - 1474.
Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin, 1526 - 1530. Dome of the Cathedral of Parma, Italy











allegory = an image that symbolically illustrates an idea, concept, or principle, often moral or religious
"The moral is that folly blinds one to the jealousy and fraud of sensual love, which time reveals." - Janson's History of Art
Bronzino, Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, c. 1546.