Middle & New Kingdoms
Exam #1
Must be submitted by 11:59 pm on Monday, Oct 5
Exam 1 Study Guide
"What is the creature that walks on four legs in the morning, two legs at noon and three in the evening?" "There are two sisters: one gives birth to the other and she, in turn, gives birth to the first. Who are the two sisters?"
Great Sphinx, Gizeh, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520 - 2494 BCE. Sandstone, 65' X 240'.











diagram of necropolis at Giza

Plan of necropolis at Gizeh











"The elaborate explanations [for the sphinx] are totally unnecessary. The falcon was identified with Horus, while the lion was identified with the sun and thus with the sun-god, Ra, and Ra's divine colleague Amun. To have a statue, half-lion, half-falcon, guarding the place where your soul would exist eternally, was to claim the protection of Egypt's most powerful gods. To put your own face on the statue was to claim their identity. The name "sphinx" is a Greek corruption; the original Egyptian name for the figure was probably 'shesepankh,' or 'living image.'" - Susan Wise Bauer
Gate of the Citadel of Sargon II
Hatshepsut's Sphinx
Gate of the Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca. 720 – 705 BCE.
Sphinx of Hatshepsut, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1479 – 1458 BCE. Granite and paint. 64 9/16" high; 135 1/16" long.











Great Pyramids

Khufu, Imhotep, and Hemiunu, The Great Pyramids, Gizeh. Fourth Dynasty.
From left front to back right: pyramids of Menkaure (Khufu's grandson, Mykerinos),
ca. 2490 - 2472 BCE; Khafre (Khufu's son, Cheprin), ca. 2520 - 2494 BCE;
and Khufu (Cheops), ca. 2551 - 2528 BCE.











Diagram of Khufus' Pyramid











Khafre's head protected by Horus
Khafre enthroned, from Gizeh. Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520 - 2494 BCE. Diorite, 5' 6" high.











Logic of the Egyptian Canon of Forms
Frozen, timeless, foreverness
Strong sense of order
Focus on clarity rather than illusionism
Eyes, shoulders and upper torso seen from front
Head, hips, legs and feet in profile
As importance of figure decreases, formality is relaxed and realism increased
Menkuare and Khamerernebty, from Gizeh, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2490 - 2472 BCE. Graywacke (Slate), 4' 6.5" high.











Seated scribe

Seated Scribe, from Saqqara, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2500 BCE. Painted limestone, 1' 9" high.











Traditional Form
Middle Kingdom

head of Snusret III

Prince Rahotep and his Wife, Nofret, ca. 2575 - 2550 BCE. Painted limestone, height 47 1/4".
Fragmentary head of Senusret III, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1860 BCE. Red quartzite, height 6 1/2".











New Kingdom


Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1473 - 1458 BCE.











divine conception of Hatshepsut

Divine conception of Hatshepsut. Amun-Re impregnates Queen Ahmose through his breath.
Hatshepsut had these glyphs carved both at her own mortuary temple, and the Temple of Amun.
Upon her death, Hatshepsut's nephew, Thutmosis II, and later, Akhenaten thoroughly damaged the carvings.











18th and 19th Dynasties











detail of kneeling statue of Hatshepsut
Colossal seated statue of Hatshepsut, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1503 - 1482 BCE. Red granite.
Detail of a large kneeling statue of Hatshepsut, destroyed and restored, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1479 – 1458 BCE. Red granite.











Nebamun hunting fowl

Nebamun hunting fowl, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 - 1350 BCE.
Fresco secco, 2' 8" high.











Amarna Period


Akhenaten and His Family

Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three daughters, Amarna, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353 - 1335 BCE. Limestone, 12 3/4 X 15 1/4".











Amarna Style
By 18th Dynasty, the priests in Thebes held so much power that they posed strong threat to divine power of pharaoh. Akhenaten attempted to defeat this threat by radically changing Egypt’s faith
  • Moved capital from Thebes to the center of Egypt at Armana
  • Closed temples and proclaimed faith in single god - the sun disk Aten
    • Believed in equal worth of people and ruler
    • Encouraged idea of pharaoh not as god, but as noble
  • Changed his name from Amenhotep to Akhenaten
    • Erased "Amen" from inscriptions

Thutmose, portrait head of Nefertiti, from Armana, 18th Dynasty, c. 1353 - 1335 BCE. Painted limestone, 1' 8" high.











Akhenaten's Revolution
Akhenaton from the temple of Aton
Exaggerated features
Overemphatic outlines
Informal and stylized

Colossoal sculpture of Akhenhaton from the temple of Aton, Karnak. 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353 - 1335 BCE. Sandstone, 13' high.











Cover of the Coffin of Tutankhamen, 18th dynasty. gold, height 72".











Howard Carter discovered King Tut's tomb in 1922





















Objects found in King Tut's tomb











Covered doorway that may lead to Nefertiti's lost tomb











King Tut's Funerary Mask

Death Mask of King Tutankhamen, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1323 BCE.
Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones.


How did King Tut die?