Gothic Light & Space
 

Socratic Circle Final Exam
Monday, May 13
10:45 AM to 1:15 PM
 
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God as Creator of the World, from a moralized Bible, France, ca. 1220 - 1230.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carolingian
Ottonian
   
Front Cover Lindau Gospels, ca. 870.
Crucifix commissioned by Archbishp Gero for Cologne Cathedral, Germany, ca. 970. Height of figure 6' 2".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jesus Washing the Feet of St. Peter, from the Gospel Book of Otto III, 997 - 1000.
Tempera on vellum, 13 X 9 3/8".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medieval Age 500 - 1600
859 - 1088
 
First universities established
Byzantine 500 - 1453
Carolingian Empire 800 - 900
Ottonian Empire 919 - 1024
Romanesque 1050 - 1200
1054
 
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and WesternRoman Catholic Church

1066
 
Duke William of Normandy conquers England
1095 - 1099
 
First Crusade called by the Pope to retake the Holy Lands from Muslims
Gothic 1150 - 1400
c. 1140
 
Lady Godiva rides naked through the marketplace to get her husband to lower coventry taxes
1147
 
Second Crusade
1180 - 1192
 
Third Crusade
1204
 
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
1250
 
Persecution of witches begins in France
1261
 
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
1280
 
Wearable eyeglasses invented in Italy
1337 - 1453
 
One Hundred Years War between France and England
1340s
 
Black Death/ The Plague kills about 75 million people worldwide
1378 - 1417
 
Great Schism
1387 - 1400
 
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
1405
 
Christine de Pizan's Book of the City of Ladies
1429
 
Joan of Arc defeats the English for France, becomes a scapegoat and is sent back to England by her country where she is burned at the stake
1453
 
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pilgrimage Routes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001 - 1031.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doors with relief panels commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael's of Hildesheim, Germany, 1015.
Bronze, height approx. 16'.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

God Accusing Adam & Eve, detail of the left door of Saint Michael's Cathedral, Hildesheim, Germay.
Bronze, approx. 23" X 43".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanesque = in the Roman manner
 
Features of Romanesque architecture:
  • Round arch
  • Solid masonry walls
  • Rounded arches and vaults made with stone rather than cement
Reflects rediscovery of Classic Greek and Roman texts by scholars
Nave (view toward the apse, after restoration of 1950 - 1960), Saint Michael's Cathedral, Hildesheim, 1001 - 1031.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of Saint James Santiago de Compostela, Spain, ca. 1075 - 1120.
Nave Saint James Santiago de Compostela, Spain, ca. 1075 - 1120.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The "Holy Right," believed to be right hand of Hungarian Saint Stephen I, Budapest.
Head reliquary of Saint Alexander, from the abbey church, Stavelot, Belgium, 1145. Silver repousse, gilt bronze, gems, pearls, and enamel. 1' 5 1/2" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanesque Architectural Developments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aerial view of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070 - 1120.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

barrel vault = series of arches forming a half cylinder
Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070 - 1120.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pointed arches
Autun Cathedral, France, ca. 1130 - 1135.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ribbed groin vault = formed by two intersecting barrel vaults
Interior of Saint'Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, late 11th to early 12th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sexpartite vault =  a rib vault divided into six bays by two diagonal ribs and three transverse ribs
Saint-Etienne, Caen, France, ca. 1115 - 1120.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The revival of stone carving in the 11th century...is a hallmark of the Romanesque age - and one reason the period is aptly named. The inspiration for stone sculpture no doubt came, at least in part, from the abundant remains of ancient statues and reliefs throughout Rome's north-western provinces. Yet these models...cannot explan the sudden proliferation of stone sculpture in Romanesque churches." - Gardner's
 
"Among sculptors, your work shines
forth, Wiligelmo."
Wiligelmo, Creation and Temptation of Adam and Eve, ca. 1110. Marble, height approx. 36". Modena Cathedral, Italy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Rome, ca. 359.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The popularity of stone sculpture in the 12th century also reflects the changing role of many churces in western Europe. In the Early Middle Ages, most churches served small monastic communities, and the worshipers were primarily or exclusively clergy. With the rise of towns in the Romanesque period, churches, especially those on the major pilrimage routes, increasignly served the lay public. The display of sculpture both inside and outside Romanesque churches was a means of impressing - and educating - a new and largely illiterate audience." - Gardner's
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"May this terror terrify those whom earthly binds, for the horror of these images here in this manner truly depicts what will be." - Gislebertus
Gislebertus, Last Judgment detail, Autun Cathedral, ca. 1120 - 1135.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

God Accusing Adam & Eve, detail of the left door of Saint Michael's Cathedral, Hildesheim, Germay.
Bronze, approx. 23" X 43".
Gislebertus, Eve, right half of lintel, north portal from Autun Cathedral, ca. 1120 - 1135. 28 ½" X 51".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The pre-Christian traders and pirates known today as the Vikings landed in the British Isles in 793, and destroyed the monastery on Lindisfarne Island and attacked the monastery on Iona Island. They would go on to colonize Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, parts of England, France, and Russia, and even Newfoundland in North America long before the arrival of Columbus to the Carribean. Their territory was called Normandy. In 1066, the Norman duke, William the Conquerer would defeat the Anglo-Saxons at Hastings, uniting all of England and much of France under the rull of Normandy. - Gardner's
Bayeux Tapestry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banquet Scene detail of the Bayeux Tapestry, from Bayeux Cathedral, France, ca. 1070 - 1080.
Halley's Comet detail of the Bayeux Tapestry, from Bayeux Cathedral, France, ca. 1070 - 1080.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West façade Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.
Interior of Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Dionysius (Denis in French) at Notre Dame
Abbot Suger at Saint Denis Cathedral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nave and choir glass, Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of Gothic Cathedrals:
  • Towering structure
  • Masonry rib vaults
  • Pointed arches
  • Flying buttresses
  • Mystical interiors illuminated with stained glass
 
Apse, Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chartres utilizes all of the hallmark
High Gothic structural devices:
  • Four part nave vaults braced by flying buttresses
  • Three-story elevation (arcade, triforium, clerestory)
  • Stained-glass windows
 
West façade Chartres Cathedral, France, ca. 1145 - 1155.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

flying buttress = an arch built on the exterior of a building that transfers the thrust of the roof vaults at important points through the wall and eventually to the ground
Flying buttresses, Chartres Cathedral, built after 1194 fire.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virgin and Child and angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere), detail of choir window, Chartres Cathedral, ca. 1170 with 13th century side panels.
Rose Window of the west façade Chartres Cathedral, ca. 1220.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chartres Choir and Choir Screen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Eleven tracks, or rows
  • Four quadrants - represents the body and the material world, four points on the compass, four gospels/ four evangelists
  • Three - the holy trinity; represents the soul
  • Seven - (four + three, material world + holy realm) considered the perfect number; because seven is the first number from 1 to 10 that neither generates, nor is generated by another number it symbolizes the Virgin
The labyrinth is an ideogram of the path man must travel in himself to be worthy of what the cathedral itself stands for.
Chartres' Labyrinth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Christian
Byzantine
Gothic
     
The Good Shepard, the Story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling of the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, early 4th century.
Christ as Pantokrator, dome mosaic in the Church of the Dormition, Daphne, Greece, ca. 1090 - 1100.
Christ (Beau Dieu), West façade of Amiens Cathedral,  ca. 1220 - 1235.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gaucher de Reims and Bernard de Soissons, west façade of Reims Cathedral, France, ca. 1225 - 1290.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annunciation and Visitation, jamb statues on the right side of the central doorway of the west façade,
Reims Cathedral, France, ca. 1220 - 1255.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Naumburg Master, Ekkehard and Uta, statues in the west choir, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany, ca. 1249 - 1255.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220 - 1258.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typical Characteristics of English cathedrals:
  • Square apse
  • Spacious sanctuary
  • Heavy walls
  • Horizontal emphasis
 
 
Interior of Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220 - 1258.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

French Gothic
English Gothic
Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de Cormont, west façade, Amiens Cathedral, begun 1220 and continued through 15th century.
West façade, Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220 - 1258.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Late English Gothic - Perpendicular Style

 

Gloucester Cathedral Choir, England, 1332 - 1357.
Gloucester Cathedral cloister, England, 1332 - 1357.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rayonnant
(mid 13th century)

Flamboyant
(through 16th century)
destinctive tracery patterns
flamelike and radiant
   
Beauvais Cathedral, France, rebuilt after 1284.
Church of Saint Ouen, Rouen Cathedral, France, 1202 - 1880.
Church of Saint Maclou, France, 1436 - 1521.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roettgen Pieta, Germany, ca. 1300 - 1325.

 

pieta = Italian for pity or piety; a representation of the Virgin grieving over the dead Christ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giotto di Bondone, The Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Italy, ca. 1305.  Fresco.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vasari credited Giotto with “setting art upon the path that may be called the true one [for he] learned to draw accurately from life and thus put an end to the crude Greek manner.”
Giotto di Bondone, detail of The Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Italy, ca. 1305.  Fresco.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thank you!

Gracias

Grazie

Merci

Danke