Gothic Light & Space

Timeline Due :0)
St. John the Evangelist from the Gospel Book of Abbot Wedcricus, 1147.
God as Creator of the World, from a moralized Bible, France, ca. 1220 - 1230.











726 - 843
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204
c. 768 - 887
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
Reign of Charlemagne
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope
Theodora repeals iconoclasm
c. 919 - 1024
Ottonian Empire
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
Crusades begin
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire




















Carolingian Art
Charlemagne 742 - 814
Scribes in the Carolingian age will bridge Hiberno-Saxon abstraction with classic realism
Illustrations to Psalms 43 and 44, from the Utrecht Psalter, Framce, ca. 820 - 835. Ink on vellum, 1' 1" X 9 7/8".











Charlemagne's coronation by Pope Leo III in 800 established the Holy Roman Empire
  • Frankish Emperor immediately set out to consolidate distant provinces
    • Unified much of present day France, Germany, Italy and the Balkans
  • Capital located in the Aachen, Germany
  • Reign brought period of stability, although particularly threatening to Byzantine Empire
    • Byzantium did not seperate church and state
    • Coronation by Pope seen as deoting Emperor's supremacy over the church
Reliquary of Charlemagne, Aachen Cathedral











Charlemagne's Empire











Charlemagne consciously modeled himself after Constantine
  • Founded schools, monasteries, and civil administrations
  • Widespread support of the arts
Charlemagne held great admiration for learning
  • Although he barely knew how to write
  • Fluent speaker of Latin
Important project of his reign was to recover "original" text of the Bible
  • Centuries of miscopying by unlearned scribes led to corruption of texts
  • Script had become nearly illegible
  • Scholar Alcuin of the monastery at York undertook correction of the script
  • Developed clear, precise system of letters
Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792 - 805.












St. Matthew from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne, c. 800 - 10 A.D. Ink and colors on vellum, 13 X 10".











Menander from the House of Meander, Pompeii,
late 1st century BCE.
St. Matthew from the Coronation Gospels, ca. 800 - 810. Ink and colors on vellum, 13 X 10".











Saint Mark from the Ebbo Gospels, France, ca. 816 - 835. Ink and colors on vellum, 10 1/4" X 8 3/16".
Saint Matthew, from the Ebbo Gospels, France, ca. 816 - 835. Ink and colors on vellum, 10 1/4" X 8 3/16".











Feudal Europe
Feudalism = system of political organization prevalent in Europe from the 9th to 15th centuries having as its basis, the relation of lord to vassal
Society divided into three groups:
1. Warrior - Nobility

lord = someone having power, authority, or influence

vassal = a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance

knight = a man who served his lord as a mounted soldier in armor; a man raised by a soverign to honorable military rank after service as a page and squire

2. Clergy
3. Commoner

serf = an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate

Limbourg Brothers, June in Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, 1412 - 1416.








Assignment #9 Due on Wednesday
Please be prepared to present what you made during class
The "Holy Lance" and the Medieval Crusades











Ottonian Art
919 - 1024
Charlemagne's empire survived less than 30 years after his death in 814.

Empire divided between his grandsons in 843

Charles the Bald - West Frankish King
Louis the German - East Frankish King
Lothair I - middle kingdon and Hloy Roman Empire
Otto III enthroned from the Gospel Book of Otto III, Germany, 997 - 1000. Tempera on vellum, 1' 1" X 9 3/8".









Front Cover Lindau Gospels, ca. 870.
Crucifix commissioned by Archbishp Gero for Cologne Cathedral, Germany, ca. 970. Height of figure 6' 2".











Jesus Washing the Feet of St. Peter, from the Gospel Book of Otto III, 997 - 1000. Tempera on vellum, 13 X 9 3/8".


The process of manuscript illumination and binding











Saint Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001 - 1031.











Doors with relief panels commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael's of Hildesheim, Germany, 1015.
Bronze, height approx. 16'.











God Accusing Adam & Eve, detail of the left door of Saint Michael's Cathedral, Hildesheim, Germay.
Bronze, approx. 23" X 43".









The "Holy Lance" and the Medieval Crusades



Medieval 500 - 1600
859 - 1088
First universities established
Byzantine 500 - 1453
Carolingian Empire 800 - 900
Ottonian Empire 919 - 1024
Romanesque 1050 - 1200
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and WesternRoman Catholic Church

Duke William of Normandy conquers England
1095 - 1099
First Crusade called by the Pope to retake the Holy Lands from Muslims
Gothic 1150 - 1400
c. 1140
Lady Godiva rides naked through the marketplace to get her husband to lower coventry taxes
Second Crusade
1180 - 1192
Third Crusade
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Persecution of witches begins in France
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
Wearable eyeglasses invented in Italy
1337 - 1453
One Hundred Years War between France and England
Black Death/ The Plague kills about 75 million people worldwide
1378 - 1417
Great Schism
1387 - 1400
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
Christine de Pizan's Book of the City of Ladies
Joan of Arc defeats the English for France, becomes a scapegoat and is sent back to England by her country where she is burned at the stake
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire











Pilgrimage Routes











Plan of Saint James Santiago de Compostela, Spain, ca. 1075 - 1120.
Nave Saint James Santiago de Compostela, Spain, ca. 1075 - 1120.










The "Holy Right," believed to be right hand of Hungarian Saint Stephen I, Budapest.











Head reliquary of Saint Alexander, from the abbey church, Stavelot, Belgium, 1145.
Silver repousse, gilt bronze, gems, pearls, and enamel. 1' 5 1/2" high.











Romanesque = in the Roman manner
Features of Romanesque architecture:
Round Arch
Solid masonry walls
Rounded arches and vaults made with stone rather than cement
Reflects rediscovery of Classic Greek and Roman texts by scholars
Nave (view toward the apse, after restoration of 1950 - 1960), Saint Michael's Cathedral, Hildesheim, 1001 - 1031.





















Interior of Saint-Etienne, Vignory, France, 10 50 - 1057.











Aerial view of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070 - 1120.










barrel vault = series of arches forming a half cylinder
Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070 - 1120.











pointed arches
Autun Cathedral, France, ca. 1130 - 1135.











Speyer Cathedral, Germany, begun 1030.











ribbed groin vault = formed by two intersecting barrel vaults
Interior of Saint'Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, late 11th to early 12th century.











sexpartite vault
Saint-Etienne, Caen, France, ca. 1115 - 1120.











Pisa cathedral complex, Pisa, Italy; baptistry begun 1153; cathedral begun 1063; campanile begun 1174.











One of the frist examples of fully developed narrative relief sculpture in Romanesque art
"Among sculptors, your work shines forth, Wiligelmo."
"The revival of stonecarving in the 11th a hallmark of the Romanesque age - and one reason the period is aptly named. The inspiration for stone sculpture no doubt came, at least in part, from the abundant remains of ancient statues and reliefs throughout Rome's north-western provinces. Yet these models...cannot explan the sudden proliferation of stone sculpture in Romanesque churches." - Gardner's
Wiligelmo, Creation and Temptation of Adam and Eve, ca. 1110. Marble, height approx. 36". Modena Cathedral, Italy.











Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Rome, ca. 359.











"The popularity of stone sculpture in the 12th century also reflects the changing role of many churces in western Europe. In the Early Middle Ages, most churches served small monastic communities, and the worshipers were primarily or exclusively clergy. With the rise of towns in the Romanesque period, churches, especially those on the major pilrimage routes, increasignly served the lay public. The display of sculpture both inside and outside Romanesque churches was a means of impressing - and educating - a new and largely illiterate audience." - Gardner's
South Portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1115 - 1135.











Pentecost and Mission of the Apostles, typanum of center portal of narthax of La Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120 - 1132.





















Gislebertus, Last Judgment, west tympanum, Autun Cathedral, ca. 1120 - 1135.











"May this terror terrify those whom earthly binds, for the horror of these images here in this manner truly depicts what will be." - Gislebertus
Gislebertus, Last Judgment detail, Autun Cathedral, ca. 1120 - 1135.






















Gislebertus, Eve, right half of lintel, north portal from Autun Cathedral, ca. 1120 - 1135.











God Accusing Adam & Eve, detail of the left door of Saint Michael's Cathedral, Hildesheim, Germay.
Bronze, approx. 23" X 43".
Gislebertus, Eve, right half of lintel, north portal from Autun Cathedral, ca. 1120 - 1135. 28 ½" X 51".












Hildegard reveals her visions, detail of a facsimile of a lost folio in the Rupertsberger Scivias
by Hildegard of Bingen, Germany, ca. 1050 - 1079.












Carpet page from Scivias

Scivias = Know the Ways
More illustrations from the Scivias
Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, ca. 1050 - 1079.











Trade Guilds

By the 12th century city populations developed bringing growth in trade, travel and education

More people involved in selling goods for profit
Resulted in decline of convents but,
increased participation of women in trade guilds
  • Guilds controlled price of labor, protected the worker and esnured quality for the buyer
  • Children as young as 12 entered an apprenticeship with a guild member to learn their trade
  • Once an apprentice had learned their craft well, they worked as a "journeyman" until they could establish their own workshop
  • As the Middle Ages progressed, women were banned from becoming guild members, but were permitted to participate in all other aspects of membership
  • By the 15th century, women will be entirely excluded from guilds, and their work dismissed as "hobby"
Women Weaving, Boccaccio, Concerning Famous Women, 1402.











Syon Cope
The Syon Cope, ca. 1300.
Opus Anglicanum = embroidered works made in English workshops during the 11th century
By 1250, these professional women embroiderers in England were highly respected
Popes regularly ordered liturgical garments from their shops which were considered as valuable as jewelry
In 1271 Henry III paid £220 for a bejeweled altar frontal equal to about £100,000 today
the labor of the four women who made it cost £36
it took them three years to create it











The Syon Cope, ca. 1300.












Bayeux Tapestry
The pre-Christian traders and pirates known today as the Vikings landed in the British Isles in 793, and destroyed the monastery on Lindisfarne Island and attacked the monastery on Iona Island. They would go on to colonize Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, parts of England, France, and Russia, and even Newfoundland in North America long before the arrival of Columbus to the Carribean. Their territory was called Normandy. In 1066, the Norman duke, William the Conquerer would defeat the Anglo-Saxons at Hastings, uniting all of England and much of France under the rull of Normandy. - Gardner's
Battle of Hastings detail of the Bayeux Tapestry, from Bayeux Cathedral, France, ca. 1070 - 1080.












Banquet Scene detail of the Bayeux Tapestry, from Bayeux Cathedral, France, ca. 1070 - 1080.











Halley's Comet detail of the Bayeux Tapestry, from Bayeux Cathedral, France, ca. 1070 - 1080.


More on the Bayeux Tapestry











Lower portion of the Column of Trajan, Rome, 112. Marble, height of relief band approx. 50”.











Aelfyva and the Cleric

Aelfgyva and the Cleric detail of the Bayeux Tapestry, from Bayeux Cathedral, France, ca. 1070 - 1080.











Exemplary iconographic analysis also utilizing historical context












"The Bayeux Tapestry, although made for a Norman patron (probably Odo, named bishop of Kent after the Conquest), was almost certainly executed by English seamstresses, perhaps in Canterbury, who reveal themselves in their spelling of the tapestry’s Latin labels and in their technique. These same women and their contemporaries also, of course, were busily preserving the Saxon roots of the English language, transmitting it to English children long after the Norman Conquest had added its French vocabulary to the mix. English embroidery, or opus anglicanum, became one of the most prized luxuries of the European Middle Ages; indeed, the tapestry itself is not, in fact, a woven tapestry, but rather a very large piece of embroidery." - Ingrid D. Rowland
Bayeux Tapestry











Age of Cathedrals


Interior of Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.






















Saint Dionysius (Denis in French) at Notre Dame
Abbot Suger at Saint Denis Cathedral












West façade Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.












Nave and choir glass, Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.











Characteristics of Gothic Cathedrals:
Towering structure
Masonry rib vaults
Pointed arches
Flying buttresses
Mystical interiors illuminated with stained glass
Apse, Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.











Chartres utilizes all of the hallmark
High Gothic structural devices:
Four part nave vaults braced by flying buttresses
Three-story elevation (arcade, triforium, clerestory)
Stained-glass windows
West façade Chartres Cathedral, France, ca. 1145 - 1155.











flying buttress = an arch built on the exterior of a building that transfers the thrust of the roof vaults at important points through the wall and eventually to the ground
Flying buttresses, Chartres Cathedral, built after 1194 fire.












Virgin and Child and angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere), detail of choir window, Chartres Cathedral, ca. 1170 with 13th century side panels.
Rose Window of the west façade Chartres Cathedral, ca. 1220.










Chartres Choir and Choir Screen











Sacred Geometry of Chartres' labyrinth
  • Eleven tracks, or rows
  • Four quadrants - represents the body and the material world, four points on the compass, four gospels/ four evangelists
  • Three - the holy trinity; represents the soul
  • Seven - (four + three, material world + holy realm) considered the perfect number; because seven is the first number from 1 to 10 that neither generates, nor is generated by another number it symbolizes the Virgin
The labyrinth is an ideogram of the path man must travel in himself to be worthy of what the cathedral itself stands for.
Chartres Labyrinth











Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral, ca. 1145 - 1155.











Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de Cormont, west façade, Amiens Cathedral,
begun 1220 and continued through 15th century.


Amiens 360





















Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de Cormont, Amiens Cathedral,
begun 1220 and continued through 15th century.











Early Christian
The Good Shepard, the Story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling of the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, early 4th century.
Christ as Pantokrator, dome mosaic in the Church of the Dormition, Daphne, Greece, ca. 1090 - 1100.
Christ (Beau Dieu), West façade of Amiens Cathedral,  ca. 1220 - 1235.










Gaucher de Reims and Bernard de Soissons, west façade of Reims Cathedral, France, ca. 1225 - 1290.











Annunciation and Visitation, jamb statues on the right side of the central doorway of the west façade,
Reims Cathedral, France, ca. 1220 - 1255.











Naumburg Master, Ekkehard and Uta, statues in the west choir, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany, ca. 1249 - 1255.











Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220 - 1258.











Typical Characteristics of English cathedrals:
Square apse
Spacious sanctuary
Heavy walls
Horizontal emphasis
Interior of Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220 - 1258.











French Gothic
English Gothic
Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de Cormont, west façade, Amiens Cathedral, begun 1220 and continued through 15th century.
West façade, Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220 - 1258.











Late English Gothic - Perpendicular Style


Gloucester Cathedral Choir, England, 1332 - 1357.











Gloucester Cathedral Cloister, England, 1332 - 1357.











Robert and William Vertue, fan vaults of the chapel of Henry VII, Westminister Abbey, London, England, 1503 - 1519.











(mid 13th century)

(through 16th century)
destinctive tracery patterns
flamelike and radiant
Beauvais Cathedral, France, rebuilt after 1284.
Church of Saint Ouen, Rouen Cathedral, France, 1202 - 1880.
Church of Saint Maclou, France, 1436 - 1521.











Christine and Justice

Christine de Pizan
1364 - 1430
When her husband died, Christine turned to writing for income
She supported herself, her mother and her three children with her writings
Christine De Pizan is the first known woman in western literature to make a living off of her art
Christine with Justice, 15th century.











Christine de Pizan, Opening Page of the Book of the City of Ladies, 1405.











De Pizan presenting work to Queen Isabeu of Bavaria, 1410 - 1411.










Roettgen Pieta, Germany, ca. 1300 - 1325.


pieta = Italian for pity or piety; a representation of the Virgin grieving over the dead Christ











15th century intellectuals were aware of the great changes of their age and became the first people to name their own time

School of Athens

Renascita = rebirth
Inspired by newly discovered ancient ruins, artworks and texts, Renaissance intellectuals declared the Classic world the height of western civilization thus far.
But, they always made clear that their civilization would be better...
Raphael, School of Athens, ca. 1510-11.











Humanism = a cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology.
Michelangelo, Pieta, Saint Peter's Basilica, 1498 - 1499.











Characteristics of Renaissance art:

Ghent Adam and Eve

Reflects admiration of classic art
Sense of stability and order
Emphasis on logic and reason
Idealized form

Adam & Eve Reproached by the Lord from
the Doors of Bishop Bernward, 1015.

Jan van Eyck, Adam and Eve
(details of the Ghent Altarpiece), 1432.











Giotto di Bondone, The Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Italy, ca. 1305.  Fresco.











Vasari credited Giotto with “setting art upon the path that may be called the true one [for he] learned to draw accurately from life and thus put an end to the crude Greek manner.”
Giotto di Bondone, detail of The Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Italy, ca. 1305.  Fresco.