Carolingian & Ottonian Styles
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Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne or Charles the Bald, from Metz, France, ninth century. Bronze, originally gilt, 9 1/2" high.











Hiberno-Saxon Style
600 - 800

Hiberno = Ireland
Saxon = England
  • Ireland had not been invaded by Germanic migrants
  • Ireland never a part of the Roman Empire
    • Maintained a vigorous spirit of independence
    • Encouraged by their geographic isolation
Book of Kells carpet page, probably from Iona, Scotland, late 8th or early 9th century. Tempera on vellum, 1' 1" X 9 1/2".












5th century, the Celts of Ireland readily convert to Christianity
  • Christianized without first being Romanized
  • Very little Greco-Roman influence in their art
  • But the hallmarks of the animal style are present
Monasticism introduced into Ireland by St. Patrick
  • Monasticism seems to have particularly appealed to the Irish
  • Roman Church poorly suited to rural lifestyle
  • Examples of desert saints of Egypt and the Near East who left the temptations of city centers to seek spiritual perfection and solitude appealed to the Irish
High Cross of Muirdech, Monasterboice, Ireland, 923. Sandstone, 18' high.











Irish became the spiritual and cultural leaders of the early Middle Ages through the missionary work of the monks
Plan of the Abbey of Saint Gall c. 817
Saint Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels, England, ca. 698 - 721.











Life of Saint Denis, 1317.