Assignment 3 Due on Wednesday
Artist's Rendition of Equestrian Statue of Justinian that stood atop the Column of Justinian,1430 - destroyed in the 16th century.













Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Rome, 315 - 330.











Basilica = (Greek) royal house
Essential features of Early Christian Basilica:
  • Long nave flanked by aisles
  • Two-story colonnade
  • Lit by clerestory windows
  • Semicircular apse at either end
  • Wooden roof
Restored cutaway view of the Basilica Nova, Rome,
ca. 306 - 312.











Old Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, ca. 320 - 27. Approx. 394' long and 210' wide.











Jacopo Grimaldi, Interior of Old St. Peter's, Rome, 1619. Drawing.





















Plan of the Baths of Caracalla











Plan of Santa Costanza
Interior, Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 337 - 351.











Early Christian architects achieved grandeur by:
  • Making the altar the focus
  • Placing the altar in front of the apse
  • Moving entrances to western end
Thus, arranging the temple along a
single longitudinal axis
Interior (view toward the apse), San Apollinare,
Ravenna, 504 CE.











How to decorate these great expanses of blank wall surface?
What was needed:
  • Artworks of the highest quality
  • Educational images that were grand
  • Quickly made
Parting of the Lot and Abraham, mosaic in nave arcade of the Church of Santa Maria Magiore, Rome, 432 - 440.
Approx. 4' 11" X 6' 8".











Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first centure BCE. 8' 10" X 16' 9".











Christ as Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the
Mausoleum of Galla Placida, Ravenna, ca. 425.











Helios riding in his chariot, Athena's Temple,
early 4th century BCE.
Menander from the House of Meander, Pompeii,
late 1st century BCE.











Early Byzantine 324 - 726
527 - 565
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204
c. 768 - 887
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
Reign of Charlemagne
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope
Theodora repeals iconoclasm
c. 919 - 1024
Ottonian Empire
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
Crusades begin
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire





















Byzantine Empire

"One God, one empire, one religion" - Gardner's Art Through the Ages


Justinian as world conquerer, mid sixth century. Ivory, 13 ½" X 10 ½".












San Vitale, Ravenna, 526 - 547.











Emperor Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.











Empress Theodora and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.











Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.











270' x 240'
112' diameter dome
Dome rests on pendentives 180' above ground
40 windows at base of dome
Plan of Hagia Sophia











The historian, Procopius wrote about Hagia Sophia, "One would declare that the place were not illuminated from the outside by the sun, but that the radiance originated from within, such is the abundance of light which is shed about this shrine." - Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, interior of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.