Carolingian Art
 
Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne or Charles the Bald, from Metz, France, ninth century. Bronze, originally gilt, 9 1/2" high.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to decorate these great expanses of blank wall surface?
What was needed:
  • Artworks of the highest quality
  • Educational images that were grand
  • Quickly made
 
Parting of the Lot and Abraham, mosaic in nave arcade of the Church of Santa Maria Magiore, Rome, 432 - 440.
Approx. 4' 11" X 6' 8".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first centure BCE. 8' 10" X 16' 9".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christ as Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placida, Ravenna, ca. 425.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Helios riding in his chariot, Athena's Temple,
early 4th century BCE.
Menander from the House of Meander, Pompeii,
late 1st century BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Byzantine 324 - 726
527 - 565
 
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
 
Muhammad
622
 
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
711
 
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
 
Iconoclasm
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204
c. 768 - 887
 
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
 
Reign of Charlemagne
793
 
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
 
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800
 
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope
843
 
Theodora repeals iconoclasm
c. 919 - 1024
 
Ottonian Empire
1054
 
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
1095
 
Crusades begin
1204
 
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453
1261
 
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
1453
 
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Byzantine Empire

"One God, one empire, one religion" - Gardner's Art Through the Ages

 

Justinian as world conquerer, mid sixth century. Ivory, 13 ½" X 10 ½".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artist's Rendition of Equestrian Statue of Justinian that stood atop the Column of Justinian,
1430, destroyed in the 16th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

San Vitale, Ravenna, 526 - 547.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Empress Theodora and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

270' x 240'
112' diameter dome
Dome rests on pendentives 180' above ground
40 windows at base of dome
Plan of Hagia Sophia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The historian, Procopius wrote about Hagia Sophia, "One would declare that the place were not illuminated from the outside by the sun, but that the radiance originated from within, such is the abundance of light which is shed about this shrine." - Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, interior of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Byzantine 324 - 726
527 - 565
 
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
 
Muhammad
622
 
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
711
 
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
 
Iconoclasm
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204
c. 768 - 887
 
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
 
Reign of Charlemagne
793
 
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
 
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800
 
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope
843
 
Theodora repeals iconoclasm
c. 919 - 1024
 
Ottonian Empire
1054
 
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
1095
 
Crusades begin
1204
 
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453
1261
 
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
1453
 
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iconoclastic Controversy 726 - 843
 
icon = (Greek "eikon") image, an image in any material representing a sacred figure or event. Icons were venerated by the faithful, who believed them to have miraculous powers to transmit messages to God.
chancel screen - a screen frequently ornamented with sculpture, separating the choir of a church from the nave or transept. In Orthodox Christian churches it is decorated with icons and thus called an inconostasis
 
encaustic = a painting technique using pigments mixed with hot wax as a medium
Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George, icon, late 6th century. Encaustic on panel. 27 X 19 3/8".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The second commandment: "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or any likeness of anything that is in Heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them." Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Phidias, Athena Parthenos, c. 438 BCE. Model of the lost statue,of which was approx. 38' tall. Reconstructed Parthenon in Nashville, TN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

iconoclasts = image destroyers
  • Insisted on a literal interpretation of the Bible
  • Believed images led to idolatry
  • Restricted religious art to abstract symbols and plant or animal forms
  • Led by the Byzantine emperor
  • Supported mainly by the eastern provinces
 
Chludov Psalther, Mid 9th century.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iconophiles = image lovers
  • Believed that Christ and his image were inseparable
  • Recognized that imagery served a useful, educational and inspirational purpose
  • Led by the monks
  • Supported mostly in the western provinces
 
 
Transfiguration of Jesus, apse mosaic Church of the Virgin, monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt, ca. 548 - 565.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Between 611 and 617, Sasanid Persians captured the cities of Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria
  • Arabs, under Islam, conquered the eastern provinces of Byzantium and Persia
  • Almost two-thirds of the Byzantine empire’s territory was lost
“The shock of these events persuaded the emperors in the eighth century that God had punished the Christian empire for its idolatrous worship of icons by setting upon it the merciless armies of the infidel.” – Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Mihrab of the Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain, begun in 784 and enlarged 961 - 965.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount, Jerusalem, 687 - 692.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After taking Jerusalem from the Byzantines in 638, the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik erected the shrine between 687 - 692 as a tribute to the triumpho of Islam.
  • Site of ancient Hebrew Temple of Solomon, destroyed by the Roman Emperor, Titus
  • Reuted location of Adam's grave
  • Place where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son, Isaac.
  • Place where Muhammad ascended to Heaven.
Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount, Jerusalem, 687 - 692.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Eutropios, citizen of Ephesus, ca. 450. Marble.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virgin (Theotokos) and Child Enthroned, apse mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 867.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

David Composing the Psalms, from the Paris Psalter, ca. 950 - 970. 14 1/8" X 10 ¼".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

harp player

Male harp player, so-called Orpheus, from Keros (Cyclades), ca. 2600 - 2300 BCE. Marble, 9" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Byzantine depictions of Christ:
Good Shepherd
Youthful philosopher
Infant
Pantocrator = ruler of the Universe, as well as the All-Holder who contains everything
Christ as Pantokrator, dome mosaic in the Church of the Dormition, Daphne, Greece, ca. 1090 - 1100.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Daphni Crucifixion," mosaic in the north arm of the east wall of the Church of the Dormition,
Daphni, Greece, ca. 1090 - 1100. Mosaic. Monastery Church, Daphni, Greece.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Merger of Byzantine and Classic Elements
 
Byzantine Elements:
  • Elongated figures
  • Linear illustration
  • Hierarchic scale
   
Classic Elements:
  • Nude Christ
  • Restrained and noble suffering
  • Prompts compassionate response
 
Dying Niobid, ca. 450 – 440 BCE. Marble, height 59”.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Image of Christ
  • Crucifixion has lost its association with capital punishment
  • Instead, emptes pathos
  • Reminds viewer of sacrifice, appealing to pagan past
Crucifixion plaque, 10th century. Ivory, 5" × 4".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Master of Nerezi, Lamentation, Saint Pantaleimon, Nerezi, Macedonia. 1164. Fresco.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Douris, Eos and Memnon, Interior of an Attic red-figured kylix. ca. 490 – 480 BCE. Diameter 10 ½".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

anastasis = Greek for resurrection, to raise and to rise
 
Gloriole - the circle of radiant light around the heads or figures of God, Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint. When it surrounds the head only, it is called a halo; when it surrounds the entire figure with a large oval it is called a madorla. It indicates divinity or holiness, though originally it was placed around the heads of kings and gods as a mark of distinction.
Anastasis, in the apse of the parekklesion of the Church of Christ (now the Kariye Museum), Istanbul, ca. 1310 - 1320. Fresco.