Byzantium Assignment 3 Due on Wednesday Artist's Rendition of Equestrian Statue of Justinian that stood atop the Column of Justinian,1430 - destroyed in the 16th century.
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Rome, 315 - 330.
Basilica = (Greek) royal house Essential features of Early Christian Basilica:
- Long nave flanked by aisles
- Two-story colonnade
- Lit by clerestory windows
- Semicircular apse at either end
- Wooden roof
Restored cutaway view of the Basilica Nova, Rome,
ca. 306 - 312.
Old Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, ca. 320 - 27. Approx. 394' long and 210' wide.
Jacopo Grimaldi, Interior of Old St. Peter's, Rome, 1619. Drawing.
Plan of the Baths of Caracalla
Plan of Santa Costanza
Interior, Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 337 - 351.
Early Christian architects achieved grandeur by:
- Making the altar the focus
- Placing the altar in front of the apse
- Moving entrances to western end
Thus, arranging the temple along a
single longitudinal axis
Interior (view toward the apse), San Apollinare,
Ravenna, 504 CE.
How to decorate these great expanses of blank wall surface? What was needed:
- Artworks of the highest quality
- Educational images that were grand
- Quickly made
Parting of the Lot and Abraham, mosaic in nave arcade of the Church of Santa Maria Magiore, Rome, 432 - 440.
Approx. 4' 11" X 6' 8".
Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first centure BCE. 8' 10" X 16' 9".
Christ as Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the
Mausoleum of Galla Placida, Ravenna, ca. 425.
Helios riding in his chariot, Athena's Temple,
early 4th century BCE.
Menander from the House of Meander, Pompeii,
late 1st century BCE.
Early Byzantine 324 - 726 527 - 565 Reign of Justinian c. 570 - 632 Muhammad 622 Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam 711 Muslims conquer Spain 726 - 843 Iconoclasm Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204 c. 768 - 887 Carolingian Empire 768 - 814 Reign of Charlemagne 793 Viking raids begin 800 - 900 Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope 843 Theodora repeals iconoclasm c. 919 - 1024 Ottonian Empire 1054 Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic 1095 Crusades begin 1204 Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453 1261 Byzantines recapture Constantinople 1453 Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire
"One God, one empire, one religion" - Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Justinian as world conquerer, mid sixth century. Ivory, 13 ½" X 10 ½".
San Vitale, Ravenna, 526 - 547.
Emperor Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.
Empress Theodora and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.
270' x 240' 112' diameter dome Dome rests on pendentives 180' above ground 40 windows at base of dome Plan of Hagia Sophia
The historian, Procopius wrote about Hagia Sophia, "One would declare that the place were not illuminated from the outside by the sun, but that the radiance originated from within, such is the abundance of light which is shed about this shrine." - Gardner's Art Through the Ages Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, interior of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.