Byzantium
 
Assignment 3 Due on Wednesday
Artist's Rendition of Equestrian Statue of Justinian that stood atop the Column of Justinian,1430 - destroyed in the 16th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Rome, 315 - 330.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basilica = (Greek) royal house
 
Essential features of Early Christian Basilica:
  • Long nave flanked by aisles
  • Two-story colonnade
  • Lit by clerestory windows
  • Semicircular apse at either end
  • Wooden roof
Restored cutaway view of the Basilica Nova, Rome,
ca. 306 - 312.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, ca. 320 - 27. Approx. 394' long and 210' wide.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacopo Grimaldi, Interior of Old St. Peter's, Rome, 1619. Drawing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of the Baths of Caracalla

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of Santa Costanza
Interior, Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 337 - 351.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Christian architects achieved grandeur by:
  • Making the altar the focus
  • Placing the altar in front of the apse
  • Moving entrances to western end
Thus, arranging the temple along a
single longitudinal axis
 
Interior (view toward the apse), San Apollinare,
Ravenna, 504 CE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to decorate these great expanses of blank wall surface?
What was needed:
  • Artworks of the highest quality
  • Educational images that were grand
  • Quickly made
 
Parting of the Lot and Abraham, mosaic in nave arcade of the Church of Santa Maria Magiore, Rome, 432 - 440.
Approx. 4' 11" X 6' 8".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first centure BCE. 8' 10" X 16' 9".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christ as Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the
Mausoleum of Galla Placida, Ravenna, ca. 425.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Helios riding in his chariot, Athena's Temple,
early 4th century BCE.
Menander from the House of Meander, Pompeii,
late 1st century BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Byzantine 324 - 726
527 - 565
 
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
 
Muhammad
622
 
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
711
 
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
 
Iconoclasm
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204
c. 768 - 887
 
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
 
Reign of Charlemagne
793
 
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
 
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800
 
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope
843
 
Theodora repeals iconoclasm
c. 919 - 1024
 
Ottonian Empire
1054
 
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
1095
 
Crusades begin
1204
 
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453
1261
 
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
1453
 
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Byzantine Empire

"One God, one empire, one religion" - Gardner's Art Through the Ages

 

Justinian as world conquerer, mid sixth century. Ivory, 13 ½" X 10 ½".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

San Vitale, Ravenna, 526 - 547.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Empress Theodora and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

270' x 240'
112' diameter dome
Dome rests on pendentives 180' above ground
40 windows at base of dome
Plan of Hagia Sophia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The historian, Procopius wrote about Hagia Sophia, "One would declare that the place were not illuminated from the outside by the sun, but that the radiance originated from within, such is the abundance of light which is shed about this shrine." - Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, interior of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.