Early Christian
Recreation of the Colossus of Constantine, c. 312 - 316 CE.












Phillip the Arabian, 244 - 249 BCE.










Aulus Metellus (Arringatore),
ca. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, over-lifes-ize. Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome.
Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, 251 - 253 CE. Bronze, 7' 11" high.





















Early Byzantine 324 - 726
Founding of Constantinople
Sack of Rome by Visgoth Alaric
Fall of the Roman Empire
St. Benedict establishes monasticism
527 - 565
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204
c. 768 - 887
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
Reign of Charlemagne
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope
Theodora repeals iconoclasm
c. 919 - 1024
Ottonian Empire
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
Crusades begin
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire











Byzantine Empire











Portraits of the four tetrarchs, Constantinople (now in Venice on St. Mark's Basilica), ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, height 51".











"In 1965, a Turkish-German archaeological excavation underneath the Bodrum Mosque, originally a 10th c. church called the Myrelaion, in Istanbul recovered a porphyry fragment of a heel standing on a rectangular base. It seemed to fit the Tetrarchs whose fourth figure is missing his original feet and base. The Myrelaion was built over a 5th century rotunda and next to the Capitolium, a temple associated with the imperial cult built during Constantine’s reign. The Capitolium was also known as the Philadelphion, the “temple of brotherly love,” after the sons of Constantine."

Porphyry fragment found under Bodrum Mosque, 10th century CE.











As Romans experience a crisis of faith, see several influential faiths develop:
Faiths competed and influenced each other
  • Claim exclusivity & universality
Mithras Slaying the Sacred Bull, ca. 150 – 200 CE. Limestone, 24 5/8 X 37 ½".
  • Emphasize revealed truth
  • Offer hope of salvation
  • Honor a chief Profit or Messiah
  • Doctrine emphasizes the struggle between good and evil
  • Practice ritual purification or initiation
  • Responsibility of faithful to seek new converts (Except Judaism)











Ark of the Covenant and two menorahst, wall painting in Jewish catacomb, Villa Torlonia, Rome, 3rd century.











The Good Shepard, the Story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling
of the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, early 4th century.












Constantine and the Fall of the Roman Empire












Colossal head of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, ca. 315 - 330. Marble, 8' 6" high.











Colossal hand and foot of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, ca. 315 - 330.


The colossal statue of Constantine