Early Christian Recreation of the Colossus of Constantine, c. 312 - 316 CE.
Phillip the Arabian, 244 - 249 BCE.
Aulus Metellus (Arringatore),
ca. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, over-lifes-ize. Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome. Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, 251 - 253 CE. Bronze, 7' 11" high.
Byzantium Early Byzantine 324 - 726 324 Founding of Constantinople 410 Sack of Rome by Visgoth Alaric 476 Fall of the Roman Empire 526 St. Benedict establishes monasticism 527 - 565 Reign of Justinian c. 570 - 632 Muhammad 622 Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam 711 Muslims conquer Spain 726 - 843 Iconoclasm Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204 c. 768 - 887 Carolingian Empire 768 - 814 Reign of Charlemagne 793 Viking raids begin 800 - 900 Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope 843 Theodora repeals iconoclasm c. 919 - 1024 Ottonian Empire 1054 Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic 1095 Crusades begin 1204 Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453 1261 Byzantines recapture Constantinople 1453 Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire
Portraits of the four tetrarchs, Constantinople (now in Venice on St. Mark's Basilica), ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, height 51".
"In 1965, a Turkish-German archaeological excavation underneath the Bodrum Mosque, originally a 10th c. church called the Myrelaion, in Istanbul recovered a porphyry fragment of a heel standing on a rectangular base. It seemed to fit the Tetrarchs whose fourth figure is missing his original feet and base. The Myrelaion was built over a 5th century rotunda and next to the Capitolium, a temple associated with the imperial cult built during Constantine’s reign. The Capitolium was also known as the Philadelphion, the “temple of brotherly love,” after the sons of Constantine."
Porphyry fragment found under Bodrum Mosque, 10th century CE.
As Romans experience a crisis of faith, see several influential faiths develop: Judaism Christianity Islam Gnosticism Mithraism Faiths competed and influenced each other
- Claim exclusivity & universality
Mithras Slaying the Sacred Bull, ca. 150 – 200 CE. Limestone, 24 5/8 X 37 ½".
- Emphasize revealed truth
- Offer hope of salvation
- Honor a chief Profit or Messiah
- Doctrine emphasizes the struggle between good and evil
- Practice ritual purification or initiation
- Responsibility of faithful to seek new converts (Except Judaism)
Ark of the Covenant and two menorahst, wall painting in Jewish catacomb, Villa Torlonia, Rome, 3rd century.
The Good Shepard, the Story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling
of the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, early 4th century.
Constantine and the Fall of the Roman Empire
Colossal head of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, ca. 315 - 330. Marble, 8' 6" high.
Colossal hand and foot of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, ca. 315 - 330.
The colossal statue of Constantine