Early Christian Portrait of Trajan, Capitoline Museums, marble, A.D. 249.
Flavian Dynasty (Vespasian, Titus, Dormitian) 43 CE Beginning of conquest of Brittany 67 CE Apostles Peter and Paul put to death 69 CE Year of four emperors, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and finally Vespasian 79 CE Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius High Empire 98 - 192 CE 98 - 117 CE Empire experiences largest extent under Emperor Titus Antonine Dynasty (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Commodus) Late Empire 192 - 395 Severan Dynasty (Septimius, Caracalla, Elagabalus, Severus Alexander) 212
Antonine Constitution (granting citizenship to all free men of the empire)
Diocletian creates the Tetrarchy: Diocletian and Maximian are Augustus (having decision-making powers), and Constantius and Galerius are Caesars (having executive powers)
Empire divided into Western and Eastern parts 307
Constantine, the first Christian emperor, reunifies the empire
Second Style Second Style began to grow in popularity around 100 BC goal = to dissolve the confining walls of a room and replace them with the illusion of an imaginary three-dimensional world
Emphasis on fantasy space
Gardenscape, Second Style wall paintings from the dining room of the Villa of Livia at Primaporta, ca. 30 - 20 BCE.
Cityscape, detail of a wall from a bedroom in the House of Publius Fannius Synistor, late 1st century CE.
Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, ca. 60 - 50 BCE.
Third Style 20 BC through mid first century AD goal = Decoration of wall space with delicate, linear fantasies sketched on predominantly monochrome backgrounds Presented in frames, similar to modern painted canvas Detail of a Third Style wall painting from cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, Italy, ca. 10 BCE. Fresco.
Fourth Style Popular during the time of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius goal = unites elements of the preceding styles into one style most intricate of the styles Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room, House of the Vettii, Pompeii, ca. 70 – 79 CE.
Augustus House, Herculaneum, primarily 1st century CE. Apodyterium of Women's Baths, Herculaneum, 60 - 68 CE.
Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
Phillip the Arabian, 244 - 249 BCE.
Aulus Metellus (Arringatore),
ca. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, over-lifes-ize. Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome. Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, 251 - 253 BCE. Bronze, 7' 11" high.
Byzantium Early Byzantine 324 - 726 324 Founding of Constantinople 410 Sack of Rome by Visgoth Alaric 476 Fall of the Roman Empire 526 St. Benedict establishes monasticism 527 - 565 Reign of Justinian c. 570 - 632 Muhammad 622 Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam 711 Muslims conquer Spain 726 - 843 Iconoclasm Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204 c. 768 - 887 Carolingian Empire 768 - 814 Reign of Charlemagne 793 Viking raids begin 800 - 900 Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope 843 Theodora repeals iconoclasm c. 919 - 1024 Ottonian Empire 1054 Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic 1095 Crusades begin 1204 Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453 1261 Byzantines recapture Constantinople 1453 Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire
Portraits of the four tetrarchs, Constantinople (now in Venice on St. Mark's Basilica), ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, height 51".
"In 1965, a Turkish-German archaeological excavation underneath the Bodrum Mosque, originally a 10th c. church called the Myrelaion, in Istanbul recovered a porphyry fragment of a heel standing on a rectangular base. It seemed to fit the Tetrarchs whose fourth figure is missing his original feet and base. The Myrelaion was built over a 5th century rotunda and next to the Capitolium, a temple associated with the imperial cult built during Constantine’s reign. The Capitolium was also known as the Philadelphion, the “temple of brotherly love,” after the sons of Constantine."
Porphyry fragment found under Bodrum Mosque, 10th century CE.
As Romans experience a crisis of faith, see several influential faiths develop: Judaism Christianity Islam Gnosticism Mithraism Faiths competed and influenced each other
- Claim exclusivity & universality
Mithras Slaying the Sacred Bull, ca. 150 – 200 CE. Limestone, 24 5/8 X 37 ½".
- Emphasize revealed truth
- Offer hope of salvation
- Honor a chief Profit or Messiah
- Doctrine emphasizes the struggle between good and evil
- Practice ritual purification or initiation
- Responsibility of faithful to seek new converts (Except Judaism)