Rome Erupts
Portrait of Trajan, Capitoline Museums, 249 CE.











Imperial Roman Sculpture


Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, early first century CE,
copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6' 8" high.










Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after an original of c. 450 - 440 BCE.
Marble, 6' 11" high.
Hermes. Roman copy after an original of c. 320 – 310 BCE , by Praxiteles. Marble, height 7'1".
Aulus Metellus (Arringatore), c. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".











idealization = the action of regarding or representing something as perfect or better than in reality.
“His portraits - produced in great numbers by anonymous artists paid by the state - were designed to present the populace with the image of a god-like leader, a superior being, who miraculously, never aged.” – Gardner's
Detail of Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, early first century CE, copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6' 8" high.











First Style
"The Masonry Style"
goal = imitate the appearance of expensive marble panels placed, using painted stucco relief
Surface of the wall emphasize

First Style painting in the fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, late 2nd century BCE.











Second Style
Second Style began to grow in popularity around 100 BC
goal = to dissolve the confining walls of a room and replace them with the illusion of an imaginary three-dimensional world
Emphasis on fantasy space

Gardenscape, Second Style wall paintings from the dining room of the Villa of Livia at Primaporta, ca. 30 - 20 BCE.












Cityscape, detail of a wall from a bedroom in the House of Publius Fannius Synistor, late 1st century CE.











Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, ca. 60 - 50 BCE.











Brother Love











Third Style
20 BC through mid first century AD
goal = Decoration of wall space with delicate, linear fantasies sketched on predominantly monochrome backgrounds
Presented in frames, similar to modern painted canvas
Detail of a Third Style wall painting from cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, Italy, ca. 10 BCE. Fresco.












Fourth Style
Popular during the time of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
goal = unites elements of the preceding styles into one style most intricate of the styles
Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room, House of the Vettii, Pompeii, ca. 70 – 79 CE.











Augustus House, Herculaneum, primarily 1st century CE.
Apodyterium of Women's Baths, Herculaneum, 60 - 68 CE.










Flavian Dynasty (Vespasian, Titus, Dormitian)
43 CE
Beginning of conquest of Brittany
67 CE
Apostles Peter and Paul put to death
69 CE
Year of four emperors, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and finally Vespasian
79 CE
Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
High Empire 98 - 192 CE
98 - 117 CE
Empire experiences largest extent under Emperor Titus
Antonine Dynasty (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Commodus)
Late Empire 192 - 395
Severan Dynasty (Septimius, Caracalla, Elagabalus, Severus Alexander)

Antonine Constitution (granting citizenship to all free men of the empire)


Diocletian creates the Tetrarchy: Diocletian and Maximian are Augustus (having decision-making powers), and Constantius and Galerius are Caesars (having executive powers)

Empire divided into Western and Eastern parts

Constantine, the first Christian emperor, reunifies the empire





















Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius