Early Medieval
   
Writing Assignment #7 and VTLS Report Due
Artist's Rendition of Equestrian Statue of Justinian that stood atop the Column of Justinian, 1430, destroyed in the 16th century.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aerial view of San Vitale, Ravenna, 526 - 547.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

San Vitale altar
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayfourteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Empress Theodora and attendants, apse of San Vitale, ca. 547.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The building of Hagia Sophia
270' x 240'
112' diameter dome
Dome rests on pendentives 180' above ground
40 windows at base of dome
Virtual tour of Hagia Sophia
Plan of Hagia Sophia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The historian, Procopius wrote about Hagia Sophia, "One would declare that the place were not illuminated from the outside by the sun, but that the radiance originated from within, such is the abundance of light which is shed about this shrine." - Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, interior of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532 – 537.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Byzantine 324 - 726
527 - 565
 
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
 
Muhammad
622
 
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
711
 
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
 
Iconoclasm
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204
c. 768 - 887
 
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
 
Reign of Charlemagne
793
 
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
 
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800
 
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope
843
 
Theodora repeals iconoclasm
c. 919 - 1024
 
Ottonian Empire
1054
 
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
1095
 
Crusades begin
1204
 
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453
1261
 
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
1453
 
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iconoclastic Controversy 726 - 843
 
icon = (Greek "eikon") image, an image in any material representing a sacred figure or event. Icons were venerated by the faithful, who believed them to have miraculous powers to transmit messages to God.
chancel screen - a screen frequently ornamented with sculpture, separating the choir of a church from the nave or transept. In Orthodox Christian churches it is decorated with icons and thus called an inconostasis
 
encaustic = a painting technique using pigments mixed with hot wax as a medium
Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George, icon, late 6th century. Encaustic on panel. 27 X 19 3/8".
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayfifteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The second commandment: "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or any likeness of anything that is in Heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them." Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Phidias, Athena Parthenos, c. 438 BCE. Model of the lost statue,of which was approx. 38' tall. Reconstructed Parthenon in Nashville, TN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

iconoclasts = image destroyers
Insisted on a literal interpretation of the Bible
Believed images led to idolatry
Restricted religious art to abstract symbols
and plant or animal forms
Led by the Byzantine emperor
Supported mainly by the eastern provinces
Chludov Psalther, Mid 9th century.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clasm_Chludov_detail_9th_century.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iconophiles = image lovers
Believed that Christ and his image were inseparable
Recognized that imagery served a useful, educational and inspirational purpose
Led by the monks
Supported mostly in
the western provinces
 
Transfiguration of Jesus, apse mosaic Church of the Virgin, monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt, ca. 548 - 565.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Between 611 and 617, Sasanid Persians captured the cities of Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria
  • Arabs, under Islam, conquered the eastern provinces of Byzantium and Persia
  • Almost two-thirds of the Byzantine empire’s territory was lost
“The shock of these events persuaded the emperors in the eighth century that God had punished the Christian empire for its idolatrous worship of icons by setting upon it the merciless armies of the infidel.” – Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Mihrab of the Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain, begun in 784 and enlarged 961 - 965.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount, Jerusalem, 687 - 692.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virtual Tour of the
Dome of the Rock
After taking Jerusalem from the Byzantines in 638, the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik erected the shrine between 687 - 692 as a tribute to the triumpho of Islam.
  • Site of ancient Hebrew Temple of Solomon, destroyed by the Roman Emperor, Titus
  • Reuted location of Adam's grave
  • Place where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son, Isaac.
  • Place where Muhammad ascended to Heaven.
Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount, Jerusalem, 687 - 692.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Eutropios, citizen of Ephesus, ca. 450. Marble.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virgin (Theotokos) and Child Enthroned, apse mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 867.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hagia-sophia-photos/apse-mosaic-mary2-c-osseman.jpg.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

David Composing the Psalms, from the Paris Psalter, ca. 950 - 970. 14 1/8" X 10 ¼".
http://coursecontent.westhillscollege.com/Art%20Images/CD_02/highres/C003529P.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

harp player

Male harp player, so-called Orpheus, from Keros (Cyclades), ca. 2600 - 2300 BCE. Marble, 9" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Byzantine depictions of Christ:
Good Shepherd
Youthful philosopher
Infant
Pantocrator = ruler of the Universe, as well as the All-Holder who contains everything
Christ as Pantokrator, dome mosaic in the Church of the Dormition, Daphne, Greece, ca. 1090 - 1100.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meister_von_Daphni_002.jpg