The Fall of Rome
Reminder! Exam 2 due TONIGHT
 
 
 
 
The Gladiator & Sex Appeal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Temple of Portunus (Temple of Fortuna Virilis), Rome, ca. 75 BCE. Tufa and Travertine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recreation of the Forum of Augustus
Maison Carree (modeled after the Forum of Augustus)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advantages of concrete:
  • Cheap, strong, easy to build with
  • Concrete shapes the space, rather than interrupts
  • Encouraged a radically different approach to architecture, an architecture that thought about the space it created rather than the mass that was built
 
Pont-du-Gard (Roman aqueduct), Nimes, France, ca. 16 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advantages of the round arch:


  • Strong
  • Self-sustaining
  • Allows for wider open space
  • Variations create barrel and groin vaults
 
The Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, ca. 70 - 80 CE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, ca. 70 - 80 CE.

 

The Colosseum and Pantheon modeled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pantheon (looking south), Rome, ca. 118 - 128 CE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recreation of original design for Pantheon and surrounding architecture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Engineering Ingenuity of the Pantheon
 
  • Modeled after Roman bath design
  • Enormous cylinder, covered by hemispheric dome, 142' diameter
  • Walls made with 20' thick concrete masonry to support the dome
  • Inside of dome patterned with recessed coffers
    • Take away a significant amount of the mass and weight of the ceiling
  • Top of dome opens to an oculus = eye
    • Provides light and ventilation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

virtual tour of the Pantheon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arch of Titus Rome, Italy, after 81 CE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, relief in passageway, Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 CE.
Marble, height 7’ 10”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Column of Trajan infographic
Lower portion of the Column of Trajan, Rome, 112 CE.
Marble, height of relief band approx. 50”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Egyptian Obelisk from Luxor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 CE.
Bronze, over-lifes-ize. Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imperial Roman Sculpture

 

Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, early first century CE,
copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6' 8" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after an original of c. 450 - 440 BCE.
Marble, 6' 11" high.
Hermes. Roman copy after an original of c. 320 – 310 BCE , by Praxiteles. Marble, height 7'1".
Aulus Metellus (Arringatore), c. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

idealization = the action of regarding or representing something as perfect or better than in reality.
 
“His portraits - produced in great numbers by anonymous artists paid by the state - were designed to present the populace with the image of a god-like leader, a superior being, who miraculously, never aged.” – Gardner's
Detail of Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, early first century CE, copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6' 8" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Style
"The Masonry Style"
 
goal = imitate the appearance of expensive marble panels placed, using painted stucco relief
 
Surface of the wall emphasize

First Style painting in the fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, late 2nd century BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Second Style
Second Style began to grow in popularity around 100 BC
 
goal = to dissolve the confining walls of a room and replace them with the illusion of an imaginary three-dimensional world
 
Emphasis on fantasy space

Gardenscape, Second Style wall paintings from the dining room of the Villa of Livia at Primaporta, ca. 30 - 20 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cityscape, detail of a wall from a bedroom in the House of Publius Fannius Synistor, late 1st century CE.