Early Christian
 
Artist's Rendition of Equestrian Statue of Justinian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Byzantium
Early Byzantine 324 - 726
324
 
Founding of Constantinople
410
 
Sack of Rome by Visgoth Alaric
476
 
Fall of the Roman Empire
526
 
St. Benedict establishes monasticism
527 - 565
 
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
 
Muhammad
622
 
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
711
 
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
 
Iconoclasm
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204
c. 768 - 887
 
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
 
Reign of Charlemagne
793
 
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
 
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800
 
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope
843
 
Theodora repeals iconoclasm
c. 919 - 1024
 
Ottonian Empire
1054
 
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
1095
 
Crusades begin
1204
 
Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople
Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453
1261
 
Byzantines recapture Constantinople
1453
 
Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portraits of the four tetrarchs, Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, height 51".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


As Romans experience a crisis of faith, see several influential faiths develop
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Gnosticism
Mithraism
 
Faiths competed and influenced each other
Claim exclusivity & universality
Emphasize revealed truth
Offer hope of salvation
Mithras Slaying the Sacred Bull, ca. 150 – 200 CE.
Limestone, 24 5/8 X 37 ½".
Honor a chief Profit or Messiah
Believe in struggle between good and evil
 
Practice ritual purification or initiation
Responsibility of faithful to seek new converts (Except Judaism)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ark of the Covenant and two menorahst, wall painting in Jewish catacomb, Villa Torlonia, Rome, 3rd century.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Good Shepard, the Story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling
of the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, early 4th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colossal head of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, ca. 315 - 330. Marble, 8' 6" high.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colossal hand and foot of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, ca. 315 - 330.

 

The colossal statue of Constantine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Constantine and the Fall of the Roman Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Rome, 315 - 330.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwelve.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basilica = (Greek) royal house
Essential features of Early Christian Basilica:
Long nave flanked by aisles
Two-story colonnade
Lit by clerestory windows
Semicircular apse at either end
Wooden roof
Restored cutaway view of the Basilica Nova, Rome,
ca. 306 - 312.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, ca. 320 - 27. Approx. 394' long and 210' wide.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacopo Grimaldi, Interior of Old St. Peter's, Rome, 1619. Drawing.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of the Baths of Caracalla
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwelve.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of Santa Costanza
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm
Interior, Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 337 - 351.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Christian architects achieved grandeur by:
Making the altar the focus
Placing the altar in front of the apse
Moving entrances to western end
Thus; arranging the temple along a single longitudinal axis
 
Interior (view toward the apse), San Apollinare,
Ravenna, 553 - 49 CE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to decorate these great expanses of blank wall surface?
What was needed:
Artworks of the highest quality
Educational images that were grand
Quickly made
Parting of the Lot and Abraham. Mosaic in nave arcade of the Church of Santa Maria Magiore, Rome. 432 - 40. Approx. 4' 11" X 6' 8".
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first centure BCE. 8' 10" X 16' 9".
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayseven.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christ as Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placida, Ravenna, ca. 425.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Helios riding in his chariot, Athena's Temple,
early 4th century BCE.
Menander from the House of Meander, Pompeii,
late 1st century BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Byzantine Empire

"One God, one empire, one religion" - Gardner's Art Through the Ages

 

Justinian as world conquerer, mid sixth century. Ivory, 13 ½" X 10 ½".