Ancient Rome
 

Exam 2 will be posted to Blackboard on Saturday, November 4

 
Tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia, Italy, c. 470 BCE.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tomb of Hunting and Fishing

Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquinia, ca. 530 - 520 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sarcophagus from Cerveteri

Sarcophagus with reclining couple, from the Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, ca. 520 BCE.
Painted terracotta, length 6' 7".
Sarcophagus and lid of Ramtha Visnai and Anth Tetnies, ca. 350 - 300 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Youth and demon of death cinerary container, early 4th century BCE.
Stone (pietra fetida), length 47”.

Youth and demon of death cinerary container, early 4th century BCE.
Stone (pietra fetida), length 47”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, late fourth or early third century BCE.

Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, late fourth or early third century BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan Monarchy and Roman Republic
753 to 27 BCE
     
753 BCE
 
Legendary founding of Rome
509 BCE
 
Romans overthrow last Etruscan king and establish the Roman Republic
451 BCE
 
"The Twelve Tables" first codification of Roman law
474 BCE
 
Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae
396 BCE
 
Rome destroys Veii
387 BCE
 
Rome destroyed by Celts
323 BCE
 
Death of Alexander
269 BCE
 
Start of Roman silver coinage
250 BCE
 
Romans begin large-scale importation of art from conquered lands
273 BCE
 
Rome conquers Cerveteri
Greek Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 BCE
ca. 214 BCE
 
Great Wall of China built
144 BCE
 
Corinth destroyed by Romans
89 BCE
 
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants
48 - 47 BCE
 
Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt together
44 BCE
 
Julius Caesar assasinated
31 BCE
 
Death of Cleopatra and end of Ptolemaic rule
Early Roman Empire 27 BCE to 96 CE
31 BCE
 
Octavian receives honorary title, "Augusts" after defeating Mark Anthony and Cleopatra and becomes first Roman Emperor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to tradition, on April 21, 753 BCE, Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, found Rome on the site where they were suckled by a she-wolf as orphaned infants.

According to the legend, Romulus and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, the daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa. Alba Longa was a mythical city located in the Alban Hills southeast of what would become Rome. Before the birth of the twins, Numitor was deposed by his younger brother Amulius, who forced Rhea to become a vestal virgin so that she would not give birth to rival claimants to his title. However, Rhea was impregnated by the war god Mars and gave birth to Romulus and Remus. Amulius ordered the infants drowned in the Tiber, but they survived and washed ashore at the foot of the Palatine hill, where they were suckled by a she-wolf until they were found by the shepherd Faustulus.

Reared by Faustulus and his wife, the twins later became leaders of a band of young shepherd warriors. After learning their true identity, they attacked Alba Longa, killed the wicked Amulius, and restored their grandfather to the throne. The twins then decided to found a town on the site where they had been saved as infants. They soon became involved in a petty quarrel, however, and Remus was slain by his brother. Romulus then became ruler of the settlement, which was named “Rome” after him.

To populate his town, Romulus offered asylum to fugitives and exiles. Rome lacked women, however, so Romulus invited the neighboring Sabines to a festival and abducted their women. A war then ensued, but the Sabine women intervened to prevent the Sabine men from seizing Rome.

Capitoline Wolf, from Rome, Italy, ca. 500 – 480 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“The dispute over the question, is there such a thing as a Roman style? has centered largely on sculpture.” -Janson's
 
Two categories of Roman sculpture:
  • “Deactivated” echoes of Greek creations
  • “Living sculptural tradition”
 
Blend of Etruscan and Roman elements
  • Etruscan writing on base
  • Roman toga
  • Etruscan workmanship
  • Gesture seems particularly Roman in attitude
  • Serious and factual quality
  • Individualization rather than idealization
 
Aulus Metellus (Arringatore), ca. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman funerary mask, 100 - 200 CE.
Man with portrait busts of his ancestors, late 1st century BCE. Marble, lifesize.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

verism = meticulous realism
 
patricians = wealthy upper class
plebians = lower class

Roman Man, 1st century BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Greek "psychology"
Roman "objectivity"
   
Portrait Head, from Delos, ca. 80 BCE.
Bronze, 12 ¾".
Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid-first century BCE. Marble, life-size.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Republican Period 510 to 27 BCE
144 BCE
 
Corinth destroyed by Romans
89 BCE
 
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants
58 - 41 BCE
 
Conquest of Gaul
48 - 47 BCE
 
Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt together
44 BCE
 
Julius Caesar assasinated
31 BCE
 
Antony and Cleopatra defeated end of Ptolemaic rule
Early Empire 27 BCE to 96 CE
Julio-Claudian Dynasty (Octavian, Tiberius, Claudius, Nero)
31 BCE
 
Octavian receives honorary title, "Augusts" after defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra
14 CE
 
Augusts (a.k.a. Octavian) becomes first Emperor of Rome
44 BCE
 
Assassination of Caesar
Flavian Dynasty (Vespasian, Titus, Dormitian)
43 CE
 
Beginning of conquest of Brittany
67 CE
 
Apostles Peter and Paul put to death
69 CE
 
Year of four emperors, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and finally Vespasian
79 CE
 
Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
High Empire 98 - 192 CE
98 - 117 CE
 
Empire experiences largest extent under Emperor Titus
Antonine Dynasty (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Commodus)
Late Empire 192 - 395
Severan Dynasty (Septimius, Caracalla, Elagabalus, Severus Alexander)
212
 

Antonine Constitution (granting citizenship to all free men of the empire)

284
 

Diocletian creates the Tetrarchy: Diocletian and Maximian are Augustus (having decision-making powers), and Constantius and Galerius are Caesars (having executive powers)

 
Empire divided into Western and Eastern parts
307
 

Constantine, the first Christian emperor, reunifies the empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is Roman Art?

 

Google Earth Ancient Rome 3D

 

Model of the city of Rome during the early fourth century CE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cosmopolitan Character of Roman Art
Etruscan elements:
  • Single entrance
  • Deep porch
  • High podium
  • Wide set of stairs in front
  • Wide cella
 
Greek elements:
  • Ionic columns
  • Engaged half-columns to approximate a Greek temple
 
Temple of Portunus (Temple of Fortuna Virilis), Rome, ca. 75 BCE. Tufa and Travertine.
Specifically Roman elements:
  • Built of tufa and travertine (but with a stucco overlay to imitate the appearance of a Greek temple)
  • Large, undivided cella

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advantages of concrete:
  • Cheap, strong, easy to build with
  • Concrete shapes the space, rather than interrupts
  • Encouraged a radically different approach to architecture, an architecture that thought about the space it created rather than the mass that was built
 
Pont-du-Gard (Roman aqueduct), Nimes, France, ca. 16 BCE.