Exam 2 will be posted to Blackboard on Saturday, November 4
Tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia, Italy, c. 470 BCE.
Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquinia, ca. 530 - 520 BCE.
Sarcophagus with reclining couple, from the Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, ca. 520 BCE.
Painted terracotta, length 6' 7".
Sarcophagus and lid of Ramtha Visnai and Anth Tetnies, ca. 350 - 300 BCE.
Youth and demon of death cinerary container, early 4th century BCE.
Stone (pietra fetida), length 47”.
Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, late fourth or early third century BCE.
Etruscan Monarchy and Roman Republic
753 to 27 BCE
753 BCE Legendary founding of Rome 509 BCE Romans overthrow last Etruscan king and establish the Roman Republic 451 BCE "The Twelve Tables" first codification of Roman law 474 BCE Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae 396 BCE Rome destroys Veii 387 BCE Rome destroyed by Celts 323 BCE Death of Alexander 269 BCE Start of Roman silver coinage 250 BCE Romans begin large-scale importation of art from conquered lands 273 BCE Rome conquers Cerveteri Greek Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 BCE ca. 214 BCE Great Wall of China built 144 BCE Corinth destroyed by Romans 89 BCE End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants 48 - 47 BCE Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt together 44 BCE Julius Caesar assasinated 31 BCE Death of Cleopatra and end of Ptolemaic rule Early Roman Empire 27 BCE to 96 CE 31 BCE Octavian receives honorary title, "Augusts" after defeating Mark Anthony and Cleopatra and becomes first Roman Emperor
According to tradition, on April 21, 753 BCE, Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, found Rome on the site where they were suckled by a she-wolf as orphaned infants.
According to the legend, Romulus and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, the daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa. Alba Longa was a mythical city located in the Alban Hills southeast of what would become Rome. Before the birth of the twins, Numitor was deposed by his younger brother Amulius, who forced Rhea to become a vestal virgin so that she would not give birth to rival claimants to his title. However, Rhea was impregnated by the war god Mars and gave birth to Romulus and Remus. Amulius ordered the infants drowned in the Tiber, but they survived and washed ashore at the foot of the Palatine hill, where they were suckled by a she-wolf until they were found by the shepherd Faustulus.
Reared by Faustulus and his wife, the twins later became leaders of a band of young shepherd warriors. After learning their true identity, they attacked Alba Longa, killed the wicked Amulius, and restored their grandfather to the throne. The twins then decided to found a town on the site where they had been saved as infants. They soon became involved in a petty quarrel, however, and Remus was slain by his brother. Romulus then became ruler of the settlement, which was named “Rome” after him.
To populate his town, Romulus offered asylum to fugitives and exiles. Rome lacked women, however, so Romulus invited the neighboring Sabines to a festival and abducted their women. A war then ensued, but the Sabine women intervened to prevent the Sabine men from seizing Rome.
Capitoline Wolf, from Rome, Italy, ca. 500 – 480 BCE.
“The dispute over the question, is there such a thing as a Roman style? has centered largely on sculpture.” -Janson's Two categories of Roman sculpture:
- “Deactivated” echoes of Greek creations
- “Living sculptural tradition”
Blend of Etruscan and Roman elements
- Etruscan writing on base
- Roman toga
- Etruscan workmanship
- Gesture seems particularly Roman in attitude
- Serious and factual quality
- Individualization rather than idealization
Aulus Metellus (Arringatore), ca. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".
Roman funerary mask, 100 - 200 CE. Man with portrait busts of his ancestors, late 1st century BCE. Marble, lifesize.
verism = meticulous realism patricians = wealthy upper class plebians = lower class
Roman Man, 1st century BCE.
Greek "psychology" Roman "objectivity" Portrait Head, from Delos, ca. 80 BCE.
Bronze, 12 ¾".
Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid-first century BCE. Marble, life-size.
Republican Period 510 to 27 BCE 144 BCE Corinth destroyed by Romans 89 BCE End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants 58 - 41 BCE Conquest of Gaul 48 - 47 BCE Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt together 44 BCE Julius Caesar assasinated 31 BCE Antony and Cleopatra defeated end of Ptolemaic rule Early Empire 27 BCE to 96 CE Julio-Claudian Dynasty (Octavian, Tiberius, Claudius, Nero) 31 BCE Octavian receives honorary title, "Augusts" after defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra 14 CE Augusts (a.k.a. Octavian) becomes first Emperor of Rome 44 BCE Assassination of Caesar Flavian Dynasty (Vespasian, Titus, Dormitian) 43 CE Beginning of conquest of Brittany 67 CE Apostles Peter and Paul put to death 69 CE Year of four emperors, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and finally Vespasian 79 CE Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius High Empire 98 - 192 CE 98 - 117 CE Empire experiences largest extent under Emperor Titus Antonine Dynasty (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Commodus) Late Empire 192 - 395 Severan Dynasty (Septimius, Caracalla, Elagabalus, Severus Alexander) 212
Antonine Constitution (granting citizenship to all free men of the empire)
Diocletian creates the Tetrarchy: Diocletian and Maximian are Augustus (having decision-making powers), and Constantius and Galerius are Caesars (having executive powers)
Empire divided into Western and Eastern parts 307
Constantine, the first Christian emperor, reunifies the empire
What is Roman Art?
Google Earth Ancient Rome 3D
Model of the city of Rome during the early fourth century CE.
Cosmopolitan Character of Roman Art Etruscan elements:
- Single entrance
- Deep porch
- High podium
- Wide set of stairs in front
- Wide cella
- Ionic columns
- Engaged half-columns to approximate a Greek temple
Temple of Portunus (Temple of Fortuna Virilis), Rome, ca. 75 BCE. Tufa and Travertine. Specifically Roman elements:
- Built of tufa and travertine (but with a stucco overlay to imitate the appearance of a Greek temple)
- Large, undivided cella
Advantages of concrete:
- Cheap, strong, easy to build with
- Concrete shapes the space, rather than interrupts
- Encouraged a radically different approach to architecture, an architecture that thought about the space it created rather than the mass that was built
Pont-du-Gard (Roman aqueduct), Nimes, France, ca. 16 BCE.