Early Christian Artist's Rendition of Equestrian Statue of Justinian
Byzantium Early Byzantine 324 - 726 324 Founding of Constantinople 410 Sack of Rome by Visgoth Alaric 476 Fall of the Roman Empire 526 St. Benedict establishes monasticism 527 - 565 Reign of Justinian c. 570 - 632 Muhammad 622 Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam 711 Muslims conquer Spain 726 - 843 Iconoclasm Middle Byzantine 843 - 1204 c. 768 - 887 Carolingian Empire 768 - 814 Reign of Charlemagne 793 Viking raids begin 800 - 900 Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope 843 Theodora repeals iconoclasm c. 919 - 1024 Ottonian Empire 1054 Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic 1095 Crusades begin 1204 Crusaders' sack and occupy Constantinople Late Byzantine 1261 - 1453 1261 Byzantines recapture Constantinople 1453 Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire
Portraits of the four tetrarchs, Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, height 51".
As Romans experience a crisis of faith, see several influential faiths develop Judaism Christianity Islam Gnosticism Mithraism Faiths competed and influenced each other Claim exclusivity & universality Emphasize revealed truth Offer hope of salvation Mithras Slaying the Sacred Bull, ca. 150 – 200 CE.
Limestone, 24 5/8 X 37 ½".
Honor a chief Profit or Messiah Believe in struggle between good and evil Practice ritual purification or initiation Responsibility of faithful to seek new converts (Except Judaism)
Ark of the Covenant and two menorahst, wall painting in Jewish catacomb, Villa Torlonia, Rome, 3rd century.
The Good Shepard, the Story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling
of the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, early 4th century.
Colossal head of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, ca. 315 - 330. Marble, 8' 6" high.
Colossal hand and foot of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, ca. 315 - 330.
The colossal statue of Constantine
Constantine and the Fall of the Roman Empire
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Rome, 315 - 330.
Basilica = (Greek) royal house Essential features of Early Christian Basilica: Long nave flanked by aisles Two-story colonnade Lit by clerestory windows Semicircular apse at either end Wooden roof Restored cutaway view of the Basilica Nova, Rome,
ca. 306 - 312.
Old Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, ca. 320 - 27. Approx. 394' long and 210' wide.
Jacopo Grimaldi, Interior of Old St. Peter's, Rome, 1619. Drawing.
Plan of the Baths of Caracalla
Plan of Santa Costanza
Interior, Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 337 - 351.
Early Christian architects achieved grandeur by: Making the altar the focus Placing the altar in front of the apse Moving entrances to western end Thus; arranging the temple along a single longitudinal axis Interior (view toward the apse), San Apollinare,
Ravenna, 553 - 49 CE.
How to decorate these great expanses of blank wall surface? What was needed: Artworks of the highest quality Educational images that were grand Quickly made Parting of the Lot and Abraham. Mosaic in nave arcade of the Church of Santa Maria Magiore, Rome. 432 - 40. Approx. 4' 11" X 6' 8".
Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first centure BCE. 8' 10" X 16' 9".
Christ as Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placida, Ravenna, ca. 425.
Helios riding in his chariot, Athena's Temple,
early 4th century BCE.
Menander from the House of Meander, Pompeii,
late 1st century BCE.
"One God, one empire, one religion" - Gardner's Art Through the Ages
Justinian as world conquerer, mid sixth century. Ivory, 13 ½" X 10 ½".