Into Ancient Rome
 

 
Tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia, Italy, c. 470 BCE.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earliest known large female nude in Greek art!

 

Dying Niobid, c. 450 – 440 BCE. Marble, height 59”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to Pliny, men who visited the shrine of the Aphrodite at Knidos on the island of Cos could not contain themselves. This nude, by the Greek master Praxiteles, was initially rejected by the people who commissioned it because of its provocative nakedness: the community of Knidos bought it and it became a popular tourist attraction. 

Pliny says one man was driven so wild he tried to have sex with the marble statue. “A stain,” says the Roman author drily, “bears witness to his lust.” And he was not the first man to fall in love with a statue.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, Roman copy of a marble statue of c. 350 - 340 BCE. Marble, 6' 8" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Aphrodites, Roman copies after originals c. 340 - 330 BCE, by Praxiteles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Praxiteles, Hermes and the infant Dionysos, Roman copy of an original of c. 340 BCE.
Marble, height 7’ 1”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt, Battle of Issus, c. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first centure BCE. 8' 10" X 16' 9".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander the Great with Amun Horns, Four-drachma silver coin issued by Lysimachos, c. 297 - 281 BCE. Diameter 1 1/8".

detail of Alexander from the Battle of Issus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes, from the palace at Persepolis, Iran. ca. 521 - 465 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hellenistic Sculpture

 

Pythokritos of Rhodes (?), Nike of Samothrace, c. 190 BCE. Marble, height 8' 1".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epigonos of Pergamon (?), Dying Gaul, Roman copy after a bronze statue from Pergamon, Turkey, original ca. 230 – 220 BCE. Marble, 3' 1/2" high.
Gallic Chieftan Killing His Wife And Himself, Roman copy after original bronze of c. 220 BCE.
Marble, height 6' 11".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agesander, Athenodoros, and Polydoros of Rhodes, Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy,
early first century CE. Marble, height 7’.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seated Boxer, from Rome, Italy, c. 100 - 50 BCE. Bronze, 4' 2" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Seated Boxer was found buried deep between the foundation walls of what appears to be a private residence and a public bath, along with another unrelated figural sculpture. Each were buried in sifted sand, and the boxer was on top of a rare (in Rome) Doric capital.
"By placing the statues in this manner between the foundation walls, before filling up the space between the walls, the deposition was staged as part of the construction of the complex. The special significance attached to this potentially ritualised marking of the construction is indicated by the special value of the statues themselves, as well as the deliberate use of the capital and the burial with sand or fine earth. This allows us to draw two important conclusions. First of all, the statues were not buried to hide them from any kind of imminent danger; they were rather deposited carefully during the construction of the building. Secondly, our dating of the foundation walls by aterminus antequem (latest possible date) of c. 200 CE suggests that the deposition took place in a period much earlier than has long been assumed." - Elon D. Heymans
The Seated Boxer at time of discovery in 1885 on the south slope of the Quirinal Hill in Rome, possibly from the remains of the Baths of Constantine.
More on the Seated Boxer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italy in Etruscan Times

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan Cultural Timeline
     
Villanovan
9th to 8th century BCE
   
Comparable to the Geometric period in Greece
   
Rasenna people fuse native and immigrant populations to form a disctinct culture, now called Etruria
 
Establish rural ararian settlements
 
Becomes wealthy trader of minerals that are scarce in the ancient world: tin, copper, silver, and salt
Orientalizing phase
ca. 700 - 600 BCE
   
7th and 6th centuries BCE Etruscans reach height of power
 
Establish confederacy of twelve city-states, but never truly unified
Archaic period
ca. 600 - 480 BCE
   
Coincides with Greek Archaic period
   
Heavy Greek influence
   
Etruscan kings rule in Rome until 509 BCE
Classical & Hellenistic
ca. 480 - 89 BCE
474 BCE
 
Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae
396 BCE
 
Rome destroys Veii
273 BCE
 
Rome conquers Cerveteri
   
Romans leave Etruscan tombs untouched
89 BCE
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banditaccia Necropolis, Cerveteri, seventh to second centuries BCE.

Human-headed cinerary urn, ca. 675 – 650 BCE. Terra-cotta, height 25 ½”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan Cultural Timeline
     
Archaic period
 
ca. 600 - 480 BCE
   
Coincides with Greek Archaic period
   
Heavy Greek influence
   
Etruscan kings rule in Rome until 509 BCE
Classical & Hellenistic
 
ca. 480 - 89 BCE
474 BCE
 
Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae
396 BCE
 
Rome destroys Veii
273 BCE
 
Rome conquers Cerveteri
   
Romans leave Etruscan tombs untouched
89 BCE
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fibula
engraved mirror
Fibula with Orientalizing lions, from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, ca. 650 - 640 BCE.
Gold, appprox. 12 ½" high.
Engraved back of a mirror, ca. 400 BCE.
Bronze, diameter 6".