Ancient Etruria
 

Danza macabra, detail Clusone, Oratorio dei discipini in Clusone, Italy, 1485.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epigonos of Pergamon (?), Dying Gaul, Roman copy after a bronze statue from Pergamon, Turkey, original ca. 230 – 220 BCE. Marble, 3' 1/2" high.
Agesander, Athenodoros, and Polydoros of Rhodes, Laocoon and his sons, from Rome, Italy, early first century CE. Marble, height 7’.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italy in Etruscan Times

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan Cultural Timeline
     
Villanovan
9th to 8th century BCE
   
Comparable to the Geometric period in Greece
   
Rasenna people fuse native and immigrant populations to form a disctinct culture, now called Etruria
 
Establish rural ararian settlements
 
Becomes wealthy trader of minerals that are scarce in the ancient world: tin, copper, silver, and salt
Orientalizing phase
ca. 700 - 600 BCE
   
7th and 6th centuries BCE Etruscans reach height of power
 
Establish confederacy of twelve city-states, but never truly unified
Archaic period
ca. 600 - 480 BCE
   
Coincides with Greek Archaic period
   
Heavy Greek influence
   
Etruscan kings rule in Rome until 509 BCE
Classical & Hellenistic
ca. 480 - 89 BCE
474 BCE
 
Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae
396 BCE
 
Rome destroys Veii
273 BCE
 
Rome conquers Cerveteri
   
Romans leave Etruscan tombs untouched
89 BCE
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banditaccia Necropolis, Cerveteri, seventh to second centuries BCE.

Human-headed cinerary urn, ca. 675 – 650 BCE. Terra-cotta, height 25 ½”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan Cultural Timeline
     
Archaic period
 
ca. 600 - 480 BCE
   
Coincides with Greek Archaic period
   
Heavy Greek influence
   
Etruscan kings rule in Rome until 509 BCE
Classical & Hellenistic
 
ca. 480 - 89 BCE
474 BCE
 
Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae
396 BCE
 
Rome destroys Veii
273 BCE
 
Rome conquers Cerveteri
   
Romans leave Etruscan tombs untouched
89 BCE
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fibula
engraved mirror
Fibula with Orientalizing lions, from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, ca. 650 - 640 BCE.
Gold, appprox. 12 ½" high.
Engraved back of a mirror, ca. 400 BCE.
Bronze, diameter 6".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Archaic Period

 

Greek vs. Etruscan Temple Design
Similar gabled roofs, columns, and triangular cornices
   

Parthenon

Etruscan temple model
Iktinos, Kallikrates, and Karpion, The Parthenon (view from the west), Akropolis, Athen, 447 - 438 BCE.
Model of a typical Etruscan temple of the sixth century BCE, as described by Vitruvius.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan temple model
Differences:
  • Etruscan temple rests on a tall podium base
  • Etruscan temples only approached via narrow stairway on the south side
  • Etruscan deep porch
  • Columns only found in front of Etruscan temples
  • Columns placed in two rows in Etruscan temples
  • Cella of the Etruscan temple is divided into three sections
Model of a typical Etruscan temple of the sixth century BCE, as described by Vitruvius.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apollo

Apulu (Apollo of Veii), from the roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, ca. 510 - 500 BCE.
Painted terracotta, 5' 11" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apollo
(Standing Youth) Kouros, from Attica, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6' ½" high.
Apulu (Apollo of Veii), from the roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, ca. 510 - 500 BCE. Painted terracotta, 5' 11" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sarcophagus from Cerveteri

Sarcophagus with reclining couple, from the Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, ca. 520 BCE.
Painted terracotta, length 6' 7".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sarcophagus and lid of Ramtha Visnai and Anth Tetnies, ca. 350 - 300 BCE.