Hellenistic Age

Alexander the Great in a Himation, after an original by Lysippos, late 4th or 3rd century BCE.












Plan of the Akropolis at Athens in 400 BCE (after A. W. Lawrence)











Artist's Rendition of Acropolis with Parthenon in upper right corner











Porch of the Maidens, Erechtheion, Akropolis, Athens, ca. 421 - 405 BCE.











Iktinos, Kallikrates, and Karpion, The Parthenon (view from the west), Akropolis, Athen, 447 - 438 BCE.
Phidias, Athena Parthenos, c. 438 BCE. Model of the lost statue which was approx. 38' tall. Reconstructed Parthenon in Nashville, TN.











Parthenon built with constant ratio of 4:9
  • height to width
  • width to length
  • diameter of columns to space in between
In the Parthenon, the controlling ratio for the symmetria of the parts may be expressed algebraically as, x = 2y = 1, where x is the larger number and y is the smaller number
Thus, there are eight columns on the short ends of the temple and seventeen on the long sides:, 17 = (2 x 8) + 1











Diagram in exaggerated proportion of the horizontal curvature of the Parthenon.


Entasis = a swelling of the shaft of a column, a basic feature of the Doric column











Statuary frieze from the East Pediment of the Parthenon











architectural order = an architectural system based on the column and its entablature in which the form of the elements themselves (capital, base, shaft, etc.) and their relationships to each other are specifically defined











Doric Order
Doric = simplicity
  • Greek mainland
  • Plain and sharply defined
  • Emphasis on stability and grace
  • Masive and weighty
  • Heavy use of entasis











Doric Order
Temple of Apollo at Thermon, c. 630 BC - ca. 610 BCE.











Ionic Order
Ionic = simple embellishment
Temple of Athena Nike & Erechtheion
  • Aegean Islands and coast of Asia Minor
  • Columns are taller and more slendor
  • Less entasis than doric order
  • Lighter and more graceful
  • Continuous friezes
  • Often included caryatids = female figured columns

Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, c. 427 - 424 BCE (view from the northeast).












Ionic Order
Erechtheion, Akropolis, Athens, c. 421 - 405 BCE.











Corinthian Order
Corinthian = complex, organic decoration
Monument of Lysikrates
  • Invented late 5th century by metalworker, Kallimachos
  • Began to appear about 450 BC, in the early Classic period on the inside of small temples
  • In the 4th century find it replacing Ionic capitals on the exterior
  • Curly shoots and leaves of the acanthus plant
  • Became the standard capital for Roman architects

Monument of Lysikrates, Athens, c. 334 BCE.












Corinthian Order
Corinthian capital, from the Tholos at Epidauros, c. 350 BCE.










Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 BCE
356 - 323 BCE
Reign of Alexander the Great
Spreads Greek ways across the East
333 BCE
Battle of Issos
323 BCE
Death of Alexander
c. 214 BCE
Great Wall of China built
144 BCE
Corinth destroyed by Romans
30 BCE
Death of Cleopatra and end of Ptolemaic rule
Alexander the Great in a Himation, after an original by Lysippos, late 4th or 3rd century BCE.











Peripteral Greek Temple plan
nucleus (cella, naos) = room in which image of the deity was placed
pronaos = the porch
peristyle = a colonnade
opisthodomos = either the rear room of an ancient Greek temple the inner shrine
  • In larger temples the nucleus of cella and porches is surrounded by a colonnade of 6 to 8 columns at front and back, and usually 12 to 14 columns along the sides
  • Entrance faces east, toward the rising sun
  • Floor plan not contingent upon order











Treasury of the Siphnians

Reconstruction drawing of the Treasury of the Siphnians. Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, ca. 530 BCE.











Classic Greek Painting


Youth diving, cover slab of the Tomb of the Diver, Tempe del Prete necropolis, Paestum, Italy, ca. 480 - 470 BCE.












Hades abducting Persephone, detail of a wall painting in tomb I, Vergina, Macedonia, ca. 340 – 330 BCE.











The Achilles Painter, Warrior taking leave of his wife on an Attic white-ground lekythos, ca. 440 BCE. 16” high.










Late Classical Sculpture


Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after an original of ca. 450 - 440 BCE. Marble, 6' 11" high.
Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (Scraper), Roman copy of a ca. 330 BCE. Marble, Height 6' 9".