Hellenistic Greece
 

Reminder! Visual Analysis/Museum due on Thursday
 
 
Zeus (or Poseidon), ca. 460 - 450 BCE. Bronze, 6' 10" high.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Greece in Context
Geometric Style after 900 to 700 BCE
776 BCE
 
First Olympic games
Archaic Period 600 - 480 BCE
   
First life-size Greek statues with "Archaic smile"
   
Innovations in black and red-figure vase painting
   
Construction of oldest peripteral Doric and Ionic temples
750 - 700 BCE
 
Homer writes the Iliad and the Odyssey
Orientalizing Style 700 to 600 BCE
563 BCE
 
Siddhartha (founder of Buddhism) born in Nepal
510 - 508 BCE
 
Athens establishes first democracy, "deme"
Classic Period ca. 480 to 323 BCE
480 - 479 BCE
 
Persians invade Greece, Athenians defeat Persians at the Battle of Marathon
   
Polykleitos formulates canon of proportions
   
Corinthian order introduced in temple architecture
after 447 BCE
 
Athenians rebuild the Acropolis
431 - 404 BCE
 
Peloponnesian Wars/ Sparta conquers Athens
363 BCE
 
Alexander the Great comes to power and begins to spread Greek ways across the East
Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 BCE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Classic Period
ca. 480 - 323 BCE
   
Calf-bearer, ca. 570 BCE. Marble, 65" high.
Kroisos (Kouros from Anavysos), ca. 525 BCE. Marble, height 6'4".
Kritios Boy, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, height 46".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Greek Vessel Shapes and Uses
 
amphora
transportation of goods
hydria
water jar
olpe
pitcher
krater
mixing wine and water
lekythos
ceremonial oil jar
oinochoe
pouring wine
kantharos
cup for drinking
kylix
cup for drinking, sometimes purely decorative
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red-Figure Style
 

Limitations of black-figure style led to development of red-figure style, gradually replacing black-figure style by 500 BCE.

  • Red figures against black background
  • Forms drawn with brush or by squeezing paint through animal bladder
  • Allows for greater detail and realism
    • Consequently, see far less use of profile view
    • Allows for greater foreshortening and three-dimensional effects
  • Less tedious technique allowed more freedom
Theseus Slaying The Minotaur, Amphora, 460 BCE.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Herakles wrestling Antaios
Psaiax, Herakles Wrestling the Nemean Lion, amphora, ca. 525 BCE.
Euphronios, Herakles Wrestling Antaios, Athenian red-figure calyx krater from Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 510 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exekias, Achilles and Ajax Playing a dice game, black-figure amphora, from Vulci, Italy,
ca. 540 - 530 BCE. 2' high.
Andokides Painter, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game, from Orvieto, Italy. Red-figured side.
ca. 523 - 520 BCE. 1' 9" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Douris, Eos and Memnon, Interior of an Attic red-figured kylix. ca. 490 – 480 BCE. Diameter 10 ½".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

431 - 404 BCE
 
Peloponnesian Wars/ Sparta conquers Athens
399 BCE
 
Trial and execution of Socrates
380 BCE
 
Plato establishes the Athens Academy
356 - 323 BCE
 
Reign of Alexander the Great
 
Spreads Greek ways across the East
333 BCE
 
Battle of Issos
323 BCE
 
Death of Alexander
Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 BCE
c. 214 BCE
 
Great Wall of China built
144 BCE
 
Corinth destroyed by Romans
30 BCE
 
Death of Cleopatra and end of Ptolemaic rule

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of the Akropolis at Athens in 400 BCE (after A. W. Lawrence)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artist's Rendition of Acropolis with Parthenon in upper right corner

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Porch of the Maidens, Erechtheion, Akropolis, Athens, ca. 421 - 405 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iktinos, Kallikrates, and Karpion, The Parthenon (view from the west), Akropolis, Athen, 447 - 438 BCE.
Phidias, Athena Parthenos, c. 438 BCE. Model of the lost statue which was approx. 38' tall. Reconstructed Parthenon in Nashville, TN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Parthenon built with constant ratio of 4:9
  • height to width
  • width to length
  • diameter of columns to space in between
 
In the Parthenon, the controlling ratio for the symmetria of the parts may be expressed algebraically as, x = 2y = 1, where x is the larger number and y is the smaller number
Thus, there are eight columns on the short ends of the temple and seventeen on the long sides:, 17 = (2 x 8) + 1
 
More on the ratios of the Parthenon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram in exaggerated proportion of the horizontal curvature of the Parthenon.

 

Entasis = a swelling of the shaft of a column, a basic feature of the Doric column

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artist's rendition of East Pediment Parthenon Frieze
British Museum's position on ownership of the Parthenon Sculptures
Akropolis Museum's position on ownership of the Parthenon Sculptures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

architectural order = an architectural system based on the column and its entablature in which the form of the elements themselves (capital, base, shaft, etc.) and their relationships to each other are specifically defined
   
Doric
Ionic
Corinthian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doric Order
   
Doric = simplicity
Parthenon
  • Greek mainland
  • Plain and sharply defined
  • Emphasis on stability and grace
  • Masive and weighty
  • Heavy use of entasis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doric Order
Temple of Apollo at Thermon, ca. 630 BC - ca. 610 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ionic Order
 
Ionic = simple embellishment
Temple of Athena Nike & Erechtheion
 
  • Aegean Islands and coast of Asia Minor
  • Columns are taller and more slendor
  • Less entasis than doric order
  • Lighter and more graceful
  • Continuous friezes
  • Often included caryatids = female figured columns
 

Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, ca. 427 - 424 BCE (view from the northeast).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ionic Order
Erechtheion, Akropolis, Athens, ca. 421 - 405 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corinthian Order
 
Corinthian = complex, organic decoration
Monument of Lysikrates
 
  • Invented late 5th century by metalworker, Kallimachos
  • Began to appear about 450 BC, in the early Classic period on the inside of small temples
  • In the 4th century find it replacing Ionic capitals on the exterior
  • Curly shoots and leaves of the acanthus plant
  • Became the standard capital for Roman architects
 

Monument of Lysikrates, Athens, ca. 334 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corinthian Order
Corinthian capital, from the Tholos at Epidauros, ca. 350 BCE.