Assignment 2 due on Blackboard!
Zeus (or Poseidon), c. 460 - 450 BCE. Bronze, 6' 10" high.











Greek Pantheon
"Man is the measure of all things." - Protagoras
supreme god and god of the sky
Zeus gives birth to Dionysos
goddess of marriage, and married women
god of the sea
goddess of corn, fruit and agriculture
god of the sun, music and poetry
goddess of the moon, hunting and chastity
goddess of wisdom, law, math, war strategy
goddess of love and beauty
god of eloquence and speech
god of war
god of wine and merrymaking
Zeus, seated on a rock, gives birth to the god Dionysos from his thigh. Hermes stands by holding the royal sceptre of his father in one hand, and in his other, his own herald’s wand. Attic Red Figure, c. 470 - 460 BCE.







The Classic Period
c. 480 - 323 BCE
Calf-bearer, c. 570 BCE. Marble, 65" high.
Kroisos (Kouros from Anavysos), c. 525 BCE. Marble, height 6'4".
Kritios Boy, c. 480 BCE. Marble, height 46".











not contrapposto
contrapposto = the disposition of the human figure in which one part is turned in opposition to another part (usually hips and legs one way, shoulders and chest another), creating a counterpositioning of the body along its central axis.
rigid frontal pose
contrapposto pose











Polykleitos' principle of symmetria
In the mid fifth century BCE, the sculptor Polykleitos of Argos set out make a "perfect" statue constructed according to an all-encompassing mathematical formula, the Pythagorean theorem. - Janson's
"[Beauty consists] in the proportions, not the elements, but of the parts, that is to say, of finger to finger, and of all the fingers to the palm and the wrist, and of these to the forearm, and of the forearm to the upper arm, and of all the other parts to each other" - Gardner's History of Art
How Art Made the World











Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after an original of c. 450 - 440 BCE.
Marble, 6' 11" high.











Riace Warrior A, found in the sea off Riace, Italy, c. 450 BCE. Bronze, height 6' 8".
Riace Warrior B, found in the sea off Riace, Italy, c. 450 BCE. Bronze, height 6' 8".











Lost-Wax Casting Process










Left: Thracian hero and king, Eumolpos, the son of Poseidon and Chione
wears a fox fur cap and was the first priest of Dionysus

Right: Erechtheus, son of the goddess Athena, wears a Corinthian helmet and Greek shield and lance










Classic Period c. 480 to 323 BCE
480 - 479 BCE
Persians invade Greece, Athenians defeat Persians at the Battle of Marathon
Polykleitos formulates canon of proportions
Corinthian order introduced in temple architecture
after 447 BCE
Athenians rebuild the Acropolis
431 - 404 BCE
Peloponnesian Wars/ Sparta conquers Athens
399 BCE
Trial and execution of Socrates
380 BCE
Plato establishes the Athens Academy
356 - 323 BCE
Reign of Alexander the Great
Spreads Greek ways across the East
363 BCE
Alexander the Great comes to power and begins to spread Greek ways across the East
333 BCE
Battle of Issos