Imperial Rome

Writing Assignment 6 Due

Visual Thinker Lecture Series Report
Monique van Genderen
Argyros Forum 209 A&B
Glen Schofield
CEO, Co-founder Sledgehammer Games
Tuesday, November 3
Argyros Forum 209 A&B
Exam 2 Study Guide
Ivory comb recently discovered in ancient, "Griffin Warrior's" tomb, Mycenaean Palace of Nestor, Greece, ca. 1500 BCE.











Roman funerary mask, 100 - 200 CE.
Man with portrait busts of his ancestors, late 1st century BCE. Marble, lifesize.











verism = meticulous realism
patricians = wealthy upper class
plebians = lower class

Roman Man, 1st century BCE.











Greek "psychology"
Roman "objectivity"
Portrait Head, from Delos, ca. 80 BCE.
Bronze, 12 ¾".
Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid-first century BCE. Marble, life-size.









Republican Period 510 to 27 BCE
144 BCE
Corinth destroyed by Romans
89 BCE
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants
58 - 41 BCE
Conquest of Gaul
48 - 47 BCE
Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt together
44 BCE
Julius Caesar assasinated
31 BCE
Antony and Cleopatra defeated end of Ptolemaic rule
Early Empire 27 BCE to 96 CE
Julio-Claudian Dynasty (Octavian, Tiberius, Claudius, Nero)
31 BCE
Octavian receives honorary title, "Augusts" after defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra
14 CE
Augusts (a.k.a. Octavian) becomes first Emperor of Rome
44 BCE
Assassination of Caesar
Flavian Dynasty (Vespasian, Titus, Dormitian)
43 CE
Beginning of conquest of Brittany
67 CE
Apostles Peter and Paul put to death
69 CE
Year of four emperors, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and finally Vespasian
79 CE
Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
High Empire 98 - 192 CE
98 - 117 CE
Empire experiences largest extent under Emperor Titus
Antonine Dynasty (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Commodus)
Late Empire 192 - 395
Severan Dynasty (Septimius, Caracalla, Elagabalus, Severus Alexander)

Antonine Constitution (granting citizenship to all free men of the empire)


Diocletian creates the Tetrarchy: Diocletian and Maximian are Augustus (having decision-making powers), and Constantius and Galerius are Caesars (having executive powers)

Empire divided into Western and Eastern parts

Constantine, the first Christian emperor, reunifies the empire











Imperial Roman Sculpture


Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, early first century CE,
copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6' 8" high.











Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after an original of ca. 450 - 440 BCE.
Marble, 6' 11" high.
Hermes. Roman copy after an original of c. 320 – 310 BC., by Praxiteles. Marble, height 7'1".
Aulus Metellus (Arringatore), ca. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".









“His portraits - produced in great numbers by anonymous artists paid by the state - were designed to present the populace with the image of a god-like leader, a superior being, who miraculously, never aged.” – Gardner's
Detail of Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, early first century CE, copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6' 8" high.























Recreation of the Forum of Augustus
Maison Carree (modeled after the Forum of Augustus)











Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, relief in passageway, Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 CE.
Marble, height 7’ 10”.











Arch of Titus Rome, Italy, after 81 CE.












Lower portion of the Column of Trajan, Rome, 112 CE.
Marble, height of relief band approx. 50”.











Egyptian Obelisk from Luxor











Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 CE.
Bronze, over-lifes-ize. Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome.











What is Roman Art?


Google Earth Ancient Rome 3D


Model of the city of Rome during the early fourth century CE.










Cosmopolitan Character of Roman Art
Etruscan elements:
  • Single entrance
  • Deep porch
  • High podium
  • Wide set of stairs in front
  • Wide cella
Greek elements:
  • Ionic columns
  • Engaged half-columns to approximate a Greek temple
Temple of Portunus (Temple of Fortuna Virilis), Rome, ca. 75 BCE. Tufa and Travertine.
Specifically Roman elements:
  • Built of tufa and travertine (but with a stucco overlay to imitate the appearance of a Greek temple)
  • Large, undivided cella










Advantages of concrete:
  • Cheap, strong, easy to build with
  • Concrete shapes the space, rather than interrupts
  • Encouraged a radically different approach to architecture, an architecture that thought about the space it created rather than the mass that was built
Pont-du-Gard (Roman aqueduct), Nimes, France, ca. 16 BCE.









Advantages of the round arch:

  • Strong
  • Self-sustaining
  • Allows for wider open space
  • Variations create barrel and groin vaults
The Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, ca. 70 - 80 CE.










The Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, ca. 70 - 80 CE.


The Colosseum and Pantheon modeled













The Gladiator & Sex Appeal