Republican Rome
 

Writing Assignment 6 due date has changed to Wednesday, October 28.

 
How Art Made the World, Episode 5:
To Death and Back
Tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia, Italy, ca. 470 BCE.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banditaccia Necropolis, Cerveteri, seventh to second centuries BCE.

Human-headed cinerary urn, ca. 675 – 650 BCE. Terra-cotta, height 25 ½”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan Cultural Timeline
     
Archaic period
 
ca. 600 - 480 BCE
   
Coincides with Greek Archaic period
   
Heavy Greek influence
   
Etruscan kings rule in Rome until 509 BCE
Classical & Hellenistic
 
ca. 480 - 89 BCE
474 BCE
 
Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae
396 BCE
 
Rome destroys Veii
273 BCE
 
Rome conquers Cerveteri
   
Romans leave Etruscan tombs untouched
89 BCE
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fibula
engraved mirror
Fibula with Orientalizing lions, from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, ca. 650 - 640 BCE.
Gold, appprox. 12 ½" high.
Engraved back of a mirror, ca. 400 BCE.
Bronze, diameter 6".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Archaic Period

 

Greek vs. Etruscan Temple Design
Similar gabled roofs, columns, and triangular cornices
   

Parthenon

Etruscan temple model
Iktinos, Kallikrates, and Karpion, The Parthenon (view from the west), Akropolis, Athen, 447 - 438 BCE.
Model of a typical Etruscan temple of the sixth century BCE, as described by Vitruvius.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan temple model
Differences:
  • Etruscan temple rests on a tall podium base
  • Etruscan temples only approached via narrow stairway on the south side
  • Etruscan deep porch
  • Columns only found in front of Etruscan temples
  • Columns placed in two rows in Etruscan temples
  • Cella of the Etruscan temple is divided into three sections
Model of a typical Etruscan temple of the sixth century BCE, as described by Vitruvius.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apollo

Apulu (Apollo of Veii), from the roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, ca. 510 - 500 BCE.
Painted terracotta, 5' 11" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apollo
(Standing Youth) Kouros, from Attica, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6' ½" high.
Apulu (Apollo of Veii), from the roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, ca. 510 - 500 BCE. Painted terracotta, 5' 11" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sarcophagus from Cerveteri

Sarcophagus with reclining couple, from the Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, ca. 520 BCE.
Painted terracotta, length 6' 7".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sarcophagus and lid of Ramtha Visnai and Anth Tetnies, ca. 350 - 300 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tomb of Hunting and Fishing

Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquinia, ca. 530 - 520 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Youth and demon of death cinerary container, early 4th century BCE.
Stone (pietra fetida), length 47”.

Youth and demon of death cinerary container, early 4th century BCE.
Stone (pietra fetida), length 47”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, late fourth or early third century BCE.

Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, late fourth or early third century BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etruscan Monarchy and Roman Republic
753 to 27 BCE
     
753 BCE
 
Legendary founding of Rome
509 BCE
 
Romans overthrow last Etruscan king and establish the Roman Republic
451 BCE
 
"The Twelve Tables" first codification of Roman law
474 BCE
 
Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae
396 BCE
 
Rome destroys Veii
387 BCE
 
Rome destroyed by Celts
323 BCE
 
Death of Alexander
269 BCE
 
Start of Roman silver coinage
250 BCE
 
Romans begin large-scale importation of art from conquered lands
273 BCE
 
Rome conquers Cerveteri
Greek Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 BCE
ca. 214 BCE
 
Great Wall of China built
144 BCE
 
Corinth destroyed by Romans
89 BCE
 
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants
48 - 47 BCE
 
Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt together
44 BCE
 
Julius Caesar assasinated
31 BCE
 
Death of Cleopatra and end of Ptolemaic rule
Early Roman Empire 27 BCE to 96 CE
31 BCE
 
Octavian receives honorary title, "Augusts" after defeating Mark Anthony and Cleopatra and becomes first Roman Emperor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to tradition, on April 21, 753 BCE, Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, found Rome on the site where they were suckled by a she-wolf as orphaned infants.

According to the legend, Romulus and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, the daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa. Alba Longa was a mythical city located in the Alban Hills southeast of what would become Rome. Before the birth of the twins, Numitor was deposed by his younger brother Amulius, who forced Rhea to become a vestal virgin so that she would not give birth to rival claimants to his title. However, Rhea was impregnated by the war god Mars and gave birth to Romulus and Remus. Amulius ordered the infants drowned in the Tiber, but they survived and washed ashore at the foot of the Palatine hill, where they were suckled by a she-wolf until they were found by the shepherd Faustulus.

Reared by Faustulus and his wife, the twins later became leaders of a band of young shepherd warriors. After learning their true identity, they attacked Alba Longa, killed the wicked Amulius, and restored their grandfather to the throne. The twins then decided to found a town on the site where they had been saved as infants. They soon became involved in a petty quarrel, however, and Remus was slain by his brother. Romulus then became ruler of the settlement, which was named “Rome” after him.

To populate his town, Romulus offered asylum to fugitives and exiles. Rome lacked women, however, so Romulus invited the neighboring Sabines to a festival and abducted their women. A war then ensued, but the Sabine women intervened to prevent the Sabine men from seizing Rome.

Capitoline Wolf, from Rome, Italy, ca. 500 – 480 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“The dispute over the question, is there such a thing as a Roman style? has centered largely on sculpture.” -Janson's
 
Two categories of Roman sculpture:
  • “Deactivated” echoes of Greek creations
  • “Living sculptural tradition”
 
Blend of Etruscan and Roman elements
  • Etruscan writing on base
  • Roman toga
  • Etruscan workmanship
  • Gesture seems particularly Roman in attitude
  • Serious and factual quality
  • Individualization rather than idealization
 
Aulus Metellus (Arringatore), ca. 80 BCE, Bronze, Height 5' 7".