Decline of Greek Art and Rise of Etruria

Writing Assignment 6 due date has changed to Wednesday, October 28.

Detail of a Corinthian vase showin a Hoplite battle, ca. 560 BCE.











Late Classical Sculpture


Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after an original of ca. 450 - 440 BCE. Marble, 6' 11" high.
Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (Scraper), Roman copy of a ca. 330 BCE. Marble, Height 6' 9".











“Earliest known large female nude in Greek art.” – Janson"s


Dying Niobid, ca. 450 – 440 BCE. Marble, height 59”.











According to Pliny, men who visited the shrine of the Aphrodite of Knidos on the island of Cos could not contain themselves. This nude, by the Greek master Praxiteles, was initially rejected by the people who commissioned it because of its provocative nakedness: the community of Knidos bought it and it became a popular tourist attraction.

Pliny says one man was driven so wild he tried to have sex with the marble statue. “A stain,” says the Roman author drily, “bears witness to his lust.” And he was not the first man to fall in love with a statue.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, Roman copy of a marble statue of ca., 350 - 340 BCE. Marble, 6' 8" high.











Knidian Aphrodite
Other Aphrodites, Roman copies after originals ca. 340 - 330 BCE, by Praxiteles.











Praxiteles, Hermes and the infanct Dionysos, Roman copy of an original of ca. 340 BCE.
Marble, height 7’ 1”.





















Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first centure BCE. 8' 10" X 16' 9".











Alexander the Great with Amun Horns, Four-drachma silver coin issued by Lysimachos, ca. 297 - 281 BCE. Diameter 1 1/8".

detail of Alexander from the Battle of Issus











Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes, from the palace at Persepolis, Iran. ca. 521 - 465 BCE.











Hellenistic Sculpture


Pythokritos of Rhodes (?), Nike of Samothrace, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, height 8' 1".











Reconstructed west front of the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 175 BCE.











Epigonos of Pergamon (?), Dying Gaul, Roman copy after a bronze statue from Pergamon, Turkey, original ca. 230 – 220 BCE.
Marble, 3' 1/2" high.
Gallic Chieftan Killing His Wife And Himself, Roman copy after original bronze of ca. 220 BCE.
Marble, height 6' 11".











Agesander, Athenodoros, and Polydoros of Rhodes, Laocoon and his sons, from Rome, Italy,
early first century CE. Marble, height 7’.











Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca. 100 - 50 BCE. Bronze, 4' 2" high.










More on the Seated Boxer


More on the discovery of the Seated Boxer

The Seated Boxer was found buried deep between the foundation walls of what appears to be a private residence and a public bath, along with another unrelated figural sculpture. Each were buried in sifted sand, and the boxer was on top of a rare (in Rome) Doric capital.
"By placing the statues in this manner between the foundation walls, before filling up the space between the walls, the deposition was staged as part of the construction of the complex. The special significance attached to this potentially ritualised marking of the construction is indicated by the special value of the statues themselves, as well as the deliberate use of the capital and the burial with sand or fine earth. This allows us to draw two important conclusions. First of all, the statues were not buried to hide them from any kind of imminent danger; they were rather deposited carefully during the construction of the building. Secondly, our dating of the foundation walls by aterminus antequem of ca. 200 CE suggests that the deposition took place in a period much earlier than has long been assumed." - Elon D. Heymans
The Seated Boxer at time of discovery in 1885 on the south slope of the Quirinal Hill in Rome, possibly from the remains of the Baths of Constantine.











Italy in Etruscan Times











Etruscan Cultural Timeline
9th to 8th century BCE
Comparable to the Geometric period in Greece
Rasenna people fuse native and immigrant populations to form a disctinct culture, now called Etruria
Establish rural ararian settlements
Becomes wealthy trader of minerals that are scarce in the ancient world: tin, copper, silver, and salt
Orientalizing phase
ca. 700 - 600 BCE
7th and 6th centuries BCE Etruscans reach height of power
Establish confederacy of twelve city-states, but never truly unified
Archaic period
ca. 600 - 480 BCE
Coincides with Greek Archaic period
Heavy Greek influence
Etruscan kings rule in Rome until 509 BCE
Classical & Hellenistic
ca. 480 - 89 BCE
474 BCE
Greek victory over Etruscan fleet off Cumae
396 BCE
Rome destroys Veii
273 BCE
Rome conquers Cerveteri
Romans leave Etruscan tombs untouched
89 BCE
End of the "Social War" and coferred Roman citizenship on all of Italy's inhabitants











Banditaccia Necropolis, Cerveteri, seventh to second centuries BCE.

Human-headed cinerary urn, ca. 675 – 650 BCE. Terra-cotta, height 25 ½”.