Prehistoric Aegean
 

Reminder! Essay 2 due on October 5.
 
Reproduction of 'The Ladies in Blue' fresco, from the Palace at Knossos, Minoan, ca. 1525 - 1450 BCE.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old Kingdom

 

Great Pyramids

Khufu, Imhotep, and Hemiunu, The Great Pyramids, Gizeh. Fourth Dynasty.
From left front to back right: pyramids of Menkaure (Khufu's grandson, Mykerinos),
ca. 2490 - 2472 BCE; Khafre (Khufu's son, Cheprin), ca. 2520 - 2494 BCE;
and Khufu (Cheops), ca. 2551 - 2528 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khafre's head protected by Horus
Khafre enthroned, from Gizeh. Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520 - 2494 BCE. Diorite, 5' 6" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Logic of the Egyptian Canon of Forms
  • Frozen, timeless, foreverness
  • Strong sense of order
  • Focus on clarity rather than illusionism
  • Eyes, shoulders and upper torso seen from front
  • Head, hips, legs and feet in profile
  • As importance of figure decreases, formality is relaxed and realism increased
Menkuare and Khamerernebty, from Gizeh, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2490 - 2472 BCE. Graywacke (Slate), 4' 6.5".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seated scribe

Seated Scribe, from Saqqara, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2500 BCE. Painted limestone, 1' 9" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Traditional Form
Middle Kingdom

head of Snusret III

Prince Rahotep and his Wife, Nofret, ca. 2575 - 2550 BCE. Painted limestone, height 47 1/4".
Fragmentary head of Senusret III, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1860 BCE. Red quartzite, height 6 1/2".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Kingdom

 

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1473 - 1458 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

divine conception of Hatshepsut

Divine conception of Hatshepsut. Amun-Re impregnates Queen Ahmose through his breath.
Hatshepsut had these glyphs carved both at her own mortuary temple, and the Temple of Amun.
Upon her death, Hatshepsut's nephew, Thutmosis II, and later, Akhenaten thoroughly damaged the carvings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18th and 19th Dynasties

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hatshepsut
detail of kneeling statue of Hatshepsut
Colossal seated statue of Hatshepsut, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1503 - 1482 BCE. Red granite.
Detail of a large kneeling statue of Hatshepsut, destroyed and restored, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1479 – 1458 BCE. Red granite.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amarna Period

 

Akhenaten and His Family

Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three daughters, Amarna, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353 - 1335 BCE. Limestone, 12 3/4 X 15 1/4".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amarna Style
Nefertiti
By 18th Dynasty, the priests in Thebes held so much power that they posed strong threat to divine power of pharaoh. Akhenaten attempted to defeat this threat by radically changing Egypt’s faith
  • Moved capital from Thebes to the center of Egypt at Armana
  • Closed temples and proclaimed faith in single god - the sun disk Aten
    • Believed in equal worth of people and ruler
    • Encouraged idea of pharaoh not as god, but as noble
  • Changed his name from Amenhotep to Akhenaten
    • Erased "Amen" from inscriptions

Thutmose, portrait head of Nefertiti, from Armana, 18th Dynasty, c. 1353 - 1335 BCE. Painted limestone, 1' 8" high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akhenaten's Revolution
Akhenaton from the temple of Aton
Exaggerated features
Overemphatic outlines
Sensitive
Informal and stylized
 

Colossoal sculpture of Akhenhaton from the temple of Aton, Karnak. 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353 - 1335 BCE. Sandstone, 13' high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cover of the Coffin of Tutankhamen, 18th dynasty. gold, height 72".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Howard Carter discovered King Tut's tomb in 1922

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Objects found in King Tut's tomb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Covered doorway that may lead to Nefertiti's lost tomb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Tut's Funerary Mask

Death Mask of King Tutankhamen, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1323 BCE.
Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones.

 

How did King Tut die?