Predynastic to Early Ancient Egypt
 

Reminder! Exam 1 must be submitted by 11:59 PM tonight!

 
Seated Scribe, from Saqqara. c. 2400 BCE. Limestone, height 21".
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

map of Ancient Egypt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mastaba to pyramid

Mastaba to Pyramid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Dynasty - mastaba

Mastaba of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep

Third Dynasty - stepped pyramid
Fourth Dynasty - bent pyramid
Fourth Dynasty - pyramid
 
Mastaba of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep, mid 5th Dynasty.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stepped pyramid of King Djoser

Imhotep, stepped pyramid of King Djoser, Saqqara, Third Dynasty, c. 2630 - 2611 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imhotep

Statuette of Imhotep, Late Period c. 664 - 332 BCE. Bronze

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Djoser Funerary Complex
 
  • About 1800 feet by 900 feet
  • Surrounded by a 35-foot-high, niched wall
  • Ceremonial buildings shaped and decorated like earlier structures made of mud, reeds, rushes, or wood
  • Although they appear to be real buildings, most aren’t- they even have fake doors
  • Two of everything in complex, even two tombs
Detail of the facade of the north palace of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Third Dynasty, c. 2630 - 2611 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Djoser's Funerary Complex

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bent Pyramid of Sneferu, Dahshur, Fourth Dynasty, Old Kingdom, c. 2600 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old Kingdom

 

Great Pyramids

Khufu, Imhotep, and Hemiunu, The Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Fourth Dynasty.
From left front to back right: pyramids of Menkaure (Khufu's grandson, Mykerinos),
c. 2490 - 2472 BCE; Khafre (Khufu's son, Cheprin), c. 2520 - 2494 BCE;
and Khufu (Cheops), c. 2551 - 2528 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khufu's Pyramid
  • Khufu may have witnessed building of Djoser’s complex as a young man
  • Until the Eiffel tower was built in 1887, tallest structure ever built
  • Sides align almost exactly with the four points of the compass
 
  • "By the Fourth Dynasty, the pharaohs considered themselves the sons of Re and his incarnation on earth. For the pharaohs, it would have been only a small step from their belief that the spirit and power of Re resided in the pyramidal ben-ben to the belief that their divine spirits and bodies would be similarly preserved within pyramidal tombs.” – Gardner's Art Through the Ages

 

"Time laughs at all things, but the pyramids laugh at time." - Arab Proverb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Khufu's pyramid contains about 2,300,000 blocks
  • Estimate about 20 to 100,000 people (not slaves) built the great pyramids
    • Worked 3 months a year for 20 years
    • Understood the work to be of honor
Modern Egyptian standing on pyramid building blocks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

diagram of necropolis at Giza

Plan of necropolis at Gizeh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The elaborate explanations [for the sphinx] are totally unnecessary. The falcon was identified with Horus, while the lion was identified with the sun, and thus with the sun-god, Ra, and Ra's divine colleague Amun. To have a statue, half-lion, half-falcon, guarding the place where your soul would exist eternally, was to claim the protection of Egypt's most powerful gods. To put your own face on the statue was to claim their identity. The name "sphinx" is a Greek corruption; the original Egyptian name for the figure was probably 'shesepankh,' or 'living image.'" - Susan Wise Bauer
 
Gate of the Citadel of Sargon II
Hatshepsut's Sphinx
Gate of the Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca. 720 – 705 BCE.
Sphinx of Hatshepsut, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1479 – 1458 BCE. Granite and paint. 64 9/16" high; 135 1/16" long.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Pyramids

Khufu, Imhotep, and Hemiunu, The Great Pyramids, Gizeh. Fourth Dynasty.
From left front to back right: pyramids of Menkaure (Khufu's grandson, Mykerinos),
ca. 2490 - 2472 BCE; Khafre (Khufu's son, Cheprin), ca. 2520 - 2494 BCE;
and Khufu (Cheops), ca. 2551 - 2528 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram of Khufus' Pyramid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Kingdom

 

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1473 - 1458 BCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

divine conception of Hatshepsut

Divine conception of Hatshepsut. Amun-Re impregnates Queen Ahmose through his breath.
Hatshepsut had these glyphs carved both at her own mortuary temple, and the Temple of Amun.
Upon her death, Hatshepsut's nephew, Thutmosis II, and later, Akhenaten thoroughly damaged the carvings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18th and 19th Dynasties