Notes on Citations
The reader is the space on which all the quotations that make up a writing are inscribed without any of them being lost; a text's unity lies not in its origin but in its destination. Yet this destination cannot any longer be personal: the reader is without history, biography, psychology; he is simply that someone who holds together in a single field all the traces by which the written text is constituted…Classic criticism has never paid any attention to the reader; for it, the writer is the only person in literature…we know that to give writing its future, it is necessary to overthrow the myth: the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author." [Final passage in "The Death of the Author," Roland Barthes (1977)
Sherrie Levine,  After Edward Weston, 1981.










Chicago Manual of Style Resources
Writing a paper in Chicago Manual of Style
Purdue Owl's CMS No Bibliography Powerpoint
Citation Style Chart

Sample Paper written in Chicago Manual of Style Notes and Bibliography Format

*Please remember that your instructor does not require a Bibliography









Notes on Plagiarism
How do we define plagiarism as a community of learners? What is acceptable, what is unacceptable?
Important Concepts to Consider:
common knowledge
"own work"


  • Must reference the original source

  • The text is much shorter than the original text. (For example, one may write a single page to summarize a four-page article.)
  • Must use your own words, usually with a very limited use of quotations.
  • Must reference the original source
  • The text produced may be shorter or longer than the original text
  • Must use your own words
  • Must reference the original source
  • The text produced is the exact length of the original text quoted (unless ellipses are used)
  • Use the original author’s exact words
  • Put quotation marks around the original author’s exact words
  • Include the page number of the original source from which you borrowed the author’s original language.











Templates for Introducing Quotations
X states, “__________.”
As the world-famous scholar X explains it, “________.”
As claimed by X, “______.”
In her article _______, X suggests that “_________.”
In X’s perspective, “___________.”
X concurs when she notes, “_______.”



Templates for Explaining Quotations
In other words, X asserts __________.
In arguing this claim, X argues that __________.
X is insisting that _________.
What X really means is that ____________.
The basis of X’s argument is that ___________.
*These templates are derived from Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein's "They Say/I Say": The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, second edition